Home   Compliance Library Regulatory Updates Compliance Self Audit

Vendor Management
A single point of contact for all of your loan origination and closing services needs. Get a better deal than you have now.  
Title Insurance
A full suite of title products including Full ALTA, special refinance and equity products, property reports, legal and vesting. recording and more.
Valuation Services
A full suite of valuation services including Full Appraisals, Drive By Appraisals, AVMs, BPOs, Review Appraisals and more.
AVM Services
A full suite of accurate AVM products including Home Value Explorer, CASA, PASS ValueSure, Home Price Analyzer, VeroValue & more. 
Flood Determinations
Life of Loan or Basic flood determinations including HMDA, free rush service, and more.
Closing Services
A full suite of closing services including settlements, closings, doc prep, bringdowns and more.
The Compliance Self Audit
Don't waste another minute on ineffective compliance training. Self guided checklists get you results at a fraction of the cost and in much less time.
Compliance Library Interpretive information and tools that allows users to quickly and conveniently navigate federal lending laws, regulations, and reference materials.
Compliance Research
Have a compliance related question?  Let us do the research for you.

Regulatory Updates
We prepare regulatory updates to keep lenders informed of the latest regulatory developments.  Subscribe and get updates delivered right to your inbox. 
About Us
A one-stop Lenders Services firm that focuses on providing
seamless, exceptional service.
Our Partners
We only work with the finest firms in the real estate lending industry so you get what you need, on time, every time.
LOS Integrations
Our products and services can be accessed through most major loan origination systems.
Contact Us
Contact us and we'll get back to you within two business hours.
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 


Regulation X

 

Real Estate Settlement Procedures

3500.1    Designation.
3500.2    Definitions.
3500.3    Questions or suggestions from public and copies of public guidance documents.
3500.4    Reliance upon rule, regulation or interpretation by HUD.
3500.5    Coverage of RESPA.
3500.6    Special information booklet at time of loan application.
3500.7    Good faith estimate.
3500.8    Use of HUD–1 or HUD–1A settlement statements.
3500.9    Reproduction of settlement statements.
3500.10    One-day advance inspection of HUD–1 or HUD–1A settlement statement; delivery; recordkeeping.
3500.11    Mailing.
3500.12    No fee.
3500.13    Relation to state laws.
3500.14    Prohibition against kickbacks and unearned fees.
3500.15    Affiliated business arrangements.
3500.16    Title companies.
3500.17    Escrow accounts.
3500.18    Validity of contracts and liens.
3500.19    Enforcement.
3500.20    [Reserved]
3500.21    Mortgage servicing transfers.

Appendix A to Part 3500—Instructions for Completing HUD–1 and HUD–1A Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1A Statements.
Appendix B to Part 3500—Illustration of Requirements of RESPA.
Appendix C to Part 3500—Sample Form of Good Faith Estimate.
Appendix D to Part 3500—Affiliated Business Arrangement Disclosure Statement Format.
Appendix E to Part 3500—Arithmetic Steps.
Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500—Servicing Disclosure Statement.
Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500—Notice of Assignment, Sale, or Transfer of Servicing Rights.

AUTHORITY:  12 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 3535(d).
SOURCE:  The provisions of this Part 3500 appear at 57 Fed. Reg. 49607, November 2, 1992, unless otherwise noted.

 3500.1  Designation.

This part may be referred to as Regulation X.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.1]

[Section 3500.1 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996]



 3500.2  Definitions.

  (a)  Statutory terms. All terms defined in RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2602
) are used in accordance with their statutory meaning unless otherwise defined in paragraph (b) of this section or elsewhere in this part.
  (b)  Other terms. As used in this part:
{{6-30-05 p.6992}}
  Application means the submission of a borrower's financial information in anticipation of a credit decision, whether written or computer-generated, relating to a federally related mortgage loan. If the submission does not state or identify a specific property, the submission is an application for a prequalification and not an application for a federally related mortgage loan under this part. The subsequent addition of an identified property to the submission converts the submission to an application for a federally related mortgage loan.
  Business day means a day on which the offices of the business entity are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of the entity's business functions.
  Dealer means, in the case of property improvement loans, a seller, contractor, or supplier of goods or services. In the case of manufactured home loans, "dealer" means one who engages in the business of manufactured home retail sales.
  Dealer loan or dealer consumer credit contract means, generally, any arrangement in which a dealer assists the borrower in obtaining a federally related mortgage loan from the funding lender and then assigns the dealer's legal interests to the funding lender and receives the net proceeds of the loan. The funding lender is the lender for the purposes of the disclosure requirements of this part. If a dealer is a "creditor" as defined under the definition of "federally related mortgage loan" in this part, the dealer is the lender for purposes of this part.
  Effective date of transfer is defined in section 6(i)(1) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2605(i)(1)). In the case of a home equity conversion mortgage or reverse mortgage as referenced in this section, the effective date of transfer is the transfer date agreed upon by the transferee servicer and the transferor servicer.
  Federally related mortgage loan or mortgage loan means as follows:
    (1)  Any loan (other than temporary financing, such as a construction loan):
      (i)  That is secured by a first or subordinate lien on residential real property, including a refinancing of any secured loan on residential real property upon which there is either:
        (A)  Located or, following settlement, will be constructed using proceeds of the loan, a structure or structures designed principally for occupancy of from one to four families (including individual units of condominiums and cooperatives and including any related interests, such as a share in the cooperative or right to occupancy of the unit); or
        (B)  Located or, following settlement, will be placed using proceeds of the loan, a manufactured home; and
      (ii)  For which one of the following paragraphs applies. The loan:
        (A)  Is made in whole or in part by any lender that is either regulated by or whose deposits or accounts are insured by any agency of the Federal Government;
        (B)  Is made in whole or in part, or is insured, guaranteed, supplemented, or assisted in any way:
          (1)  By the Secretary or any other officer or agency of the Federal Government; or
          (2)  Under or in connection with a housing or urban development program administered by the Secretary or a housing or related program administered by any other officer or agency of the Federal Government;
        (C)  Is intended to be sold by the originating lender to the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (or its successors);
        (D)  Is made in whole or in part by a "creditor", as defined in section 103(f) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (
15 U.S.C. 1602(f)), that makes or invests in residential real estate loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year. For purposes of this definition, the term "creditor" does not include any agency or instrumentality of any State, and the term "residential real estate loan" means any loan secured by residential real property, including single-family and multifamily residential property;
{{6-30-05 p.6993}}
        (E)  Is originated either by a dealer or, if the obligation is to be assigned to any maker of mortgage loans specified in paragraphs (1)(ii)(A) through (D) of this definition, by a mortgage broker; or
        (F)  Is the subject of a home equity conversion mortgage, also frequently called a "reverse mortgage," issued by any maker of mortgage loans specified in paragraphs (1)(ii)(A) through (D) of this definition.
    (2)  Any installment sales contract, land contract, or contract for deed on otherwise qualifying residential property is a federally related mortgage loan if the contract is funded in whole or in part by proceeds of a loan made by any maker of mortgage loans specified in paragraphs (1)(ii)(A) through (D) of this definition.
    (3)  If the residential real property securing a mortgage loan is not located in a State, the loan is not a federally related mortgage loan.
  Good faith estimate means an estimate, prepared in accordance with section 5 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2604), of charges that a borrower is likely to incur in connection with a settlement.
  HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement (also HUD--1 or HUD--1A) means the statement that is prescribed by the Secretary in this part for setting forth settlement charges in connection with either the purchase or the refinancing (or other subordinate lien transaction) of 1- to 4-family residential property.
  Lender means, generally, the secured creditor or creditors named in the debt obligation and document creating the lien. For loans originated by a mortgage broker that closes a federally related mortgage loan in its own name in a table funding transaction, the lender is the person to whom the obligation is initially assigned at or after settlement. A lender, in connection with dealer loans, is the lender to whom the loan is assigned, unless the dealer meets the definition of creditor as defined under "federally related mortgage loan" in this section. See also  3500.5(b)(7), secondary market transactions.
  Managerial employee means an employee of a settlement service provider who does not routinely deal directly with consumers, and who either hires, directs, assigns, promotes, or rewards other employees or independent contractors, or is in a position to formulate, determine, or influence the policies of the employer. Neither the term "managerial employee" nor the term "employee" includes independent contractors, but a managerial employee may hold a real estate brokerage or agency license.
  Manufactured home is defined in  3280.2 of this title.
  Mortgage broker means a person (not an employee or exclusive agent of a lender) who brings a borrower and lender together to obtain a federally related mortgage loan, and who renders services as described in the definition of "settlement services" in this section. A loan correspondent approved under  202.8 of this title for Federal Housing Administration programs is a mortgage broker for purposes of this part.
  Mortgaged property means the real property that is security for the federally related mortgage loan.
  Person is defined in section 3(5) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2602(5)).
  Public Guidance Documents means documents that HUD has published in the Federal Register, and that it may amend from time-to-time by publication in the Federal Register. These documents are also available from HUD at the address indicated in
24 CFR 3500.3.
  Refinancing means a transaction in which an existing obligation that was subject to a secured lien on residential real property is satisfied and replaced by a new obligation undertaken by the same borrower and with the same or a new lender. The following shall not be treated as a refinancing, even when the existing obligation is satisfied and replaced by a new obligation with the same lender (this definition of "refinancing" as to transactions with the same lender is similar to Regulation Z,
12 CFR 226.20(a)):
    (1)  A renewal of a single payment obligation with no change in the original terms;
    (2)  A reduction in the annual percentage rate as computed under the Truth in Lending Act with a corresponding change in the payment schedule;
    (3)  An agreement involving a court proceeding;
{{6-30-05 p.6994}}
    (4)  A workout agreement, in which a change in the payment schedule or change in collateral requirements is agreed to as a result of the consumer's default or delinquency, unless the rate is increased or the new amount financed exceeds the unpaid balance plus earned finance charges and premiums for continuation of allowable insurance; and
    (5)  The renewal of optional insurance purchased by the consumer that is added to an existing transaction, if disclosures relating to the initial purchase were provided.
  Regulation Z means the regulations issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (12 CFR part 226) to implement the Federal Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and includes the Commentary on Regulation Z.
  Required use means a situation in which a person must use a particular provider of a settlement service in order to have access to some distinct service or property, and the person will pay for the settlement service of the particular provider or will pay a charge attributable, in whole or in part, to the settlement service. However, the offering of a package (or combination of settlement services) or the offering of discounts or rebates to consumers for the purchase of multiple settlement services does not constitute a required use. Any package or discount must be optional to the purchaser. The discount must be a true discount below the prices that are otherwise generally available, and must not be made up by higher costs elsewhere in the settlement process.
  RESPA means the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974, 12 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.
  Servicer means the person responsible for the servicing of a mortgage loan (including the person who makes or holds a mortgage loan if such person also services the mortgage loan). The term does not include:
    (1)  The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) or the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC), in connection with assets acquired, assigned, sold, or transferred pursuant to
section 13(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or as receiver or conservator of an insured depository institution; and
    (2)  The Federal National Mortgage Corporation (FNMA); the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac); the RTC; the FDIC; HUD, including the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (including cases in which a mortgage insured under the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) is assigned to HUD); the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA); the Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 (FmHA); and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), in any case in which the assignment, sale, or transfer of the servicing of the mortgage loan is preceded by termination of the contract for servicing the loan for cause, commencement of proceedings for bankruptcy of the servicer, or commencement of proceedings by the FDIC or RTC for conservatorship or receivership of the servicer (or an entity by which the servicer is owned or controlled).
  Servicing means receiving any scheduled periodic payments from a borrower pursuant to the terms of any mortgage loan, including amounts for escrow accounts under section 10 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2609), and making the payments to the owner of the loan or other third parties of principal and interest and such other payments with respect to the amounts received from the borrower as may be required pursuant to the terms of the mortgage servicing loan documents or servicing contract. In the case of a home equity conversion mortgage or reverse mortgage as referenced in this section, servicing includes making payments to the borrower.
  Settlement means the process of executing legally binding documents regarding a lien on property that is subject to a federally related mortgage loan. This process may also be called "closing" or "escrow" in different jurisdictions.
  Settlement service means any service provided in connection with a prospective or actual settlement, including, but not limited to, any one or more of the following:
    (1)  Origination of a federally related mortgage loan (including, but not limited to, the taking of loan applications, loan processing, and the underwriting and funding of such loans);
{{6-30-05 p.6995}}
    (2)  Rendering of services by a mortgage broker (including counseling, taking of applications, obtaining verifications and appraisals, and other loan processing and origination services, and communicating with the borrower and lender);
    (3)  Provision of any services related to the origination, processing or funding of a federally related mortgage loan;
    (4)  Provision of title services, including title searches, title examinations, abstract preparation, insurability determinations, and the issuance of title commitments and title insurance policies;
    (5)  Rendering of services by an attorney;
    (6)  Preparation of documents, including notarization, delivery, and recordation;
    (7)  Rendering of credit reports and appraisals;
    (8)  Rendering of inspections, including inspections required by applicable law or any inspections required by the sales contract or mortgage documents prior to transfer of title;
    (9)  Conducting of settlement by a settlement agent and any related services;
    (10)  Provision of services involving mortgage insurance;
    (11)  Provision of services involving hazard, flood, or other casualty insurance or homeowner's warranties;
    (12)  Provision of services involving mortgage life, disability, or similar insurance designed to pay a mortgage loan upon disability or death of a borrower, but only if such insurance is required by the lender as a condition of the loan;
    (13)  Provision of services involving real property taxes or any other assessments or charges on the real property;
    (14)  Rendering of services by a real estate agent or real estate broker; and
    (15)  Provision of any other services for which a settlement service provider requires a borrower or seller to pay.
  Special information booklet means the booklet prepared by the Secretary pursuant to section 5 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2604) to help persons understand the nature and costs of settlement services. The Secretary publishes the form of the special information booklet in the Federal Register. The Secretary may issue or approve additional booklets or alternative booklets by publication of a Notice in the Federal Register.
  State means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.
  Table funding means a settlement at which a loan is funded by a contemporaneous advance of loan funds and an assignment of the loan to the person advancing the funds. A table-funded transaction is not a secondary market transaction (see
 3500.5(b)(7)).
  Title company means any institution, or its duly authorized agent, that is qualified to issue title insurance.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.2]

[Section 3500.2 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 29252, June 7, 1996, effective October 7, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58475, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997; 62 Fed. Reg. 20088, April 24, 1997, effective May 27, 1997]



 3500.3  Questions or suggestions from public and copies of public guidance documents.

  Any questions or suggestions from the public regarding RESPA, or requests for copies of HUD Public Guidance Documents, should be directed to the Director, Office of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street S.W., Washington, D.C. 20410--8000, rather than to HUD field offices. Legal questions may be directed to the Assistant General Counsel, GSE/RESPA Division, at this address.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.3]

{{6-30-05 p.6996}}



[Section 3500.3 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.4  Reliance upon rule, regulation or interpretation by HUD.

  (a)  Rule, regulation or interpretation.--(1)  For purposes of sections 19(a) and (b) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2617(a) and (b)) only the following constitute a rule, regulation or interpretation of the Secretary:
      (i)  All provisions, including appendices, of this part. Any other document referred to in this part is not incorporated in this part unless it is specifically set out in this part;
      (ii)  Any other document that is published in the Federal Register by the Secretary and states that it is an "interpretation," "interpretive rule," "commentary," or a "statement of policy" for purposes of section 19(a) of RESPA. Such documents will be prepared by HUD staff and counsel. Such documents may be revoked or amended by a subsequent document published in the Federal Register by the Secretary.
    (2)  A "rule, regulation, or interpretation thereof by the Secretary" for purposes of section 19(b) of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2617(b)) shall not include the special information booklet prescribed by the Secretary or any other statement or issuance, whether oral or written, by an officer or representative of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), letter or memorandum by the Secretary, General Counsel, any Assistant Secretary or other officer or employee of HUD, preamble to a regulation or other issuance of HUD, Public Guidance Document, report to Congress, pleading, affidavit or other document in litigation, pamphlet, handbook, guide, telegraphic communication, explanation, instructions to forms, speech or other material of any nature which is not specifically included in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
  (b)  Unofficial interpretations; staff discretion. In response to requests for interpretation of matters not adequately covered by this part or by an official interpretation issued under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, unofficial staff interpretations may be provided at the discretion of HUD staff or counsel. Written requests for such interpretations should be directed to the address indicated in  3500.3. Such interpretations provide no protection under section 19(b) of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2617(b)). Ordinarily, staff or counsel will not issue unofficial interpretations on matters adequately covered by this part or by official interpretations or commentaries issued under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section.
  (c)  All informal counsel's opinions and staff interpretations issued before November 2, 1992, were withdrawn as of that date. Courts and administrative agencies, however, may use previous opinions to determine the validity of conduct under the previous Regulation X.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.4]

[Section 3500.4 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.5  Coverage of RESPA.

  (a)  Applicability. RESPA and this part apply to all federally related mortgage loans, except for the exemptions provided in paragraph (b) of this section.
  (b)  Exemptions. (1) A loan on property of 25 acres or more.
    (2)  Business purpose loans. An extension of credit primarily for a business, commercial, or agricultural purpose, as defined by Regulation Z,
12 CFR 226.3(a)(1). Persons may rely on Regulation Z in determining whether the exemption applies.
    (3)  Temporary financing. Temporary financing, such as a construction loan. The exemption for temporary financing does not apply to a loan made to finance construction of 1- to 4-family residential property if the loan is used as, or may be converted to, permanent financing by the same lender or is used to finance transfer of title to the first user. If a lender issues a commitment for permanent financing, with or without conditions, the loan is covered by this part. Any construction loan for new or rehabilitated 1- to 4-family residential property, other than a loan to a bona fide builder (a person who regularly
{{6-30-05 p.6997}}constructs 1- to 4-family residential structures for sale or lease), is subject to this part if its term is for two years or more. A "bridge loan" or "swing loan" in which a lender takes a security interest in otherwise covered 1- to 4-family residential property is not covered by RESPA and this part.
    (4)  Vacant land. Any loan secured by vacant or unimproved property, unless within two years from the date of the settlement of the loan, a structure or a manufactured home will be constructed or placed on the real property using the loan proceeds. If a loan for a structure or manufactured home to be placed on vacant or unimproved property will be secured by a lien on that property, the transaction is covered by this part.
    (5)  Assumption without lender approval. Any assumption in which the lender does not have the right expressly to approve a subsequent person as the borrower on an existing federally related mortgage loan. Any assumption in which the lender's permission is both required and obtained is covered by RESPA and this part, whether or not the lender charges a fee for the assumption.
    (6)  Loan conversions. Any conversion of a federally related mortgage loan to different terms that are consistent with provisions of the original mortgage instrument, as long as a new note is not required, even if the lender charges an additional fee for the conversion.
    (7)  Secondary market transactions. A bona fide transfer of a loan obligation in the secondary market is not covered by RESPA and this part, except as set forth in section 6 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2605) and  3500.21. In determining what constitutes a bona fide transfer, HUD will consider the real source of funding and the real interest of the funding lender. Mortgage broker transactions that are table-funded are not secondary market transactions. Neither the creation of a dealer loan or dealer consumer credit contract, nor the first assignment of such loan or contract to a lender, is a secondary market transaction (see  3500.2.)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.5]

[Section 3500.5 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58475, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997]



 3500.6 Special information booklet at time of loan application.

  (a)  Lender to provide special information booklet. Subject to the exceptions set forth in this paragraph, the lender shall provide a copy of the special information booklet to a person from whom the lender receives, or for whom the lender prepares, a written application for a federally related mortgage loan. When two or more persons apply together for a loan, the lender is in compliance if the lender provides a copy of the booklet to one of the persons applying.
    (1)  The lender shall provide the special information booklet by delivering it or placing it in the mail to the applicant not later than three business days (as that term is defined in  3500.2) after the application is received or prepared. However, if the lender denies the borrower's application for credit before the end of the three-business-day period, then the lender need not provide the booklet to the borrower. If a borrower uses a mortgage broker, the mortgage broker shall distribute the special information booklet and the lender need not do so. The intent of this provision is that the applicant receive the special information booklet at the earliest possible date.
    (2)  In the case of a federally related mortgage loan involving an open-ended credit plan, as defined in
 226.2(a)(20) of Regulation Z (12 CFR), a lender or mortgage broker that provides the borrower with a copy of the brochure entitled "When Your Home is On the Line: What You Should Know About Home Equity Lines of Credit", or any successor
{{6-30-05 p.6998}}brochure issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, is deemed to be in compliance with this section.
    (3)  In the categories of transactions set forth at the end of this paragraph, the lender or mortgage broker does not have to provide the booklet to the borrower. Under the authority of section 19(a) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2617(a)), the Secretary may issue a revised or separate special information booklet that deals with these transactions, or the Secretary may chose to endorse the forms or booklets of other Federal agencies. In such an event, the requirements for delivery by lenders and the availability of the booklet or alternate materials for these transactions will be set forth in a Notice in the Federal Register. This paragraph shall apply to the following transactions:
      (i)  Refinancing transactions;
      (ii)  Closed-end loans, as defined in
12 CFR 226.2(a)(10) of Regulation Z, when the lender takes a subordinate lien;
      (iii)  Reverse mortgages; and
      (iv)  Any other federally related mortgage loan whose purpose is not the purchase of a 1- to 4-family residential property.
  (b)  Revision. The Secretary may from time to time revise the special information booklet by publishing a notice in the Federal Register.
  (c)  Reproduction. The special information booklet may be reproduced in any form, provided that no change is made other than as provided under paragraph (d) of this section. The special information booklet may not be made a part of a larger document for purposes of distribution under RESPA and this section. Any color, size and quality of paper, type of print, and method of reproduction may be used so long as the booklet is clearly legible.
  (d)  Permissible changes. (1) No changes to, deletions from, or additions to the special information booklet currently prescribed by the Secretary shall be made other than those specified in this paragraph (d) or any others approved in writing by the Secretary. A request to the Secretary for approval of any changes shall be submitted in writing to the address indicated in
 3500.3, stating the reasons why the applicant believes such changes, deletions or additions are necessary.
      (2)  The cover of the booklet may be in any form and may contain any drawings, pictures or artwork, provided that the words "settlement costs" are used in the title. Names, addresses and telephone numbers of the lender or others and similar information may appear on the cover, but no discussion of the matters covered in the booklet shall appear on the cover.
      (3)  The special information booklet may be translated into languages other than English.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.6]

[Section 3500.6 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.7 Good faith estimate.

  (a)  Lender to provide. Except as provided in this paragraph (a) or paragraph (f) of this section, the lender shall provide all applicants for a federally related mortgage loan with a good faith estimate of the amount of or range of charges for the specific settlement services the borrower is likely to incur in connection with the settlement. The lender shall provide the good faith estimate required under this section (a suggested format is set forth in
Appendix C of this part) either by delivering the good faith estimate or by placing it in the mail to the loan applicant, not later than three business days after the application is received or prepared.
{{6-30-05 p.6999}}
    (1)  If the lender denies the application for a federally related mortgage loan before the end of the three-business-day period, the lender need not provide the denied borrower with a good faith estimate.
    (2)  For "no cost" or "no point" loans, the charges to be shown on the good faith estimate include any payments to be made to affiliated or independent settlement service providers. These payments should be shown as P.O.C. (Paid Outside of Closing) on the Good Faith Estimate and the HUD--1 or HUD--1A.
    (3)  In the case of dealer loans, the lender is responsible for provision of the good faith estimate, either directly or by the dealer.
    (4)  If a mortgage broker is the exclusive agent of the lender, either the lender or the mortgage broker shall provide the good faith estimate within three business days after the mortgage broker receives or prepares the application.
  (b)  Mortgage broker to provide. In the event an application is received by a mortgage broker who is not an exclusive agent of the lender, the mortgage broker must provide a good faith estimate within three days of receiving a loan application based on his or her knowledge of the range of costs (a suggested format is set forth in Appendix C of this part). As long as the mortgage broker has provided the good faith estimate, the funding lender is not required to provide an additional good faith estimate, but the funding lender is responsible for ascertaining that the good faith estimate has been delivered. If the application for mortgage credit is denied before the end of the three-business-day period, the mortgage broker need not provide the denied borrower with a good faith estimate.
  (c)  Content of good faith estimate. A good faith estimate consists of an estimate, as a dollar amount or range, of each charge which:
    (1)  Will be listed in section L of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A in accordance with the instructions set forth in Appendix A to this part; and
    (2)  That the borrower will normally pay or incur at or before settlement based upon common practice in the locality of the mortgaged property. Each such estimate must be made in good faith and bear a reasonable relationship to the charge a borrower is likely to be required to pay at settlement, and must be based upon experience in the locality of the mortgaged property. As to each charge with respect to which the lender requires a particular settlement service provider to be used, the lender shall make its estimate based upon the lender's knowledge of the amounts charged by such provider.
  (d)  Form of good faith estimate. A suggested good faith estimate form is set forth in Appendix C to this part and is in compliance with the requirements of the Act except for any additional requirements of paragraph (e) of this section. The good faith estimate may be provided together with disclosures required by the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., so long as all required material for the good faith estimate is grouped together. The lender may include additional relevant information, such as the name/signature of the applicant and loan officer, date, and information identifying the loan application and property, as long as the form remains clear and concise and the additional information is not more prominent than the required material.
  (e)  Particular providers required by lender. (1) If the lender requires the use (see
 3500.2, ""required use'') of a particular provider of a settlement service, other than the lender's own employees, and also requires the borrower to pay any portion of the cost of such service, then the good faith estimate must:
      (i)  Clearly state that use of the particular provider is required and that the estimate is based on the charges of the designated provider;
      (ii)  Give the name, address, and telephone number of each provider; and
      (iii)  Describe the nature of any relationship between each such provider and the lender. Plain English references to the relationship should be utilized, e.g., "X is a depositor of the lender," "X is a borrower from the lender," "X has performed 60% of the lender's settlements in the past year." (The lender is not required to keep detailed records of the percentages of use. Similar language, such as "X was used [regularly] [frequently] in our settlements the past year" is also sufficient for the purposes of this paragraph.) In the event that more than one relationship exists, each should be disclosed.
{{6-30-05 p.7000}}
    (2)  For purposes of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, a "relationship" exists if:
      (i)  The provider is an associate of the lender, as that term is defined in
12 U.S.C. 2602(8);
      (ii)  Within the last 12 months, the provider has maintained an account with the lender or had an outstanding loan or credit arrangement with the lender; or
      (iii)  The lender has repeatedly used or required borrowers to use the services of the provider within the last 12 months.
    (3)  Except for a provider that is the lender's chosen attorney, credit reporting agency, or appraiser, if the lender is in an affiliated business relationship (see
 3500.15) with a provider, the lender may not require the use of that provider.
    (4)  If the lender maintains a controlled list of required providers (five or more for each discrete service) or relies on a list maintained by others, and at the time of application the lender has not yet decided which provider will be selected from that list, then the lender may satisfy the requirements of this section if the lender:
      (i)  Provides the borrower with a written statement that the lender will require a particular provider from a lender-controlled or approved list; and
      (ii)  Provides the borrower in the Good Faith Estimate the range of costs for the required provider(s), and provides the name of the specific provider and the actual cost on the HUD--1 or HUD--1A.
  (f)  Open-end lines of credit (home-equity plans) under Truth in Lending Act. In the case of a federally related mortgage loan involving an open-end line of credit (home-equity plan) covered under the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z, a lender or mortgage broker that provides the borrower with the disclosures required by
12 CFR 226.5b of Regulation Z at the time the borrower applies for such loan shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section.

  (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2502--0265)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.7]

[Section 3500.7 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13236, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58476, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997]



 3500.8 Use of HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statements.

  (a)  Use by settlement agent. The settlement agent shall use the HUD--1 settlement statement in every settlement involving a federally related mortgage loan in which there is a borrower and a seller. For transactions in which there is a borrower and no seller, such as refinancing loans or subordinate lien loans, the HUD--1 may be utilized by using the borrower's side of the HUD--1 statement. Alternatively, the form HUD--1A may be used for these transactions. Either the HUD--1 or the HUD--1A, as appropriate, shall be used for every RESPA-covered transaction, unless its use is specifically exempted, but the HUD--1 or HUD--1A may be modified as permitted under this part. The use of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A is exempted for open-end lines of credit (home-equity plans) covered by the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z.
  (b)  Charges to be stated. The settlement agent shall complete the HUD--1 or HUD--1A in accordance with the instructions set forth in Appendix A to this part.
  (c)  Aggregate accounting at settlement. (1) After itemizing individual deposits in the 1000 series using single-item accounting, the servicer shall make an adjustment based on aggregate accounting. This adjustment equals the difference in the deposit required under aggregate accounting and the sum of the deposits required under single-item accounting. The computation steps for both accounting methods are set out in
 3500.17(d). The adjustment will always be a negative number or zero (--0--). The settlement agent shall enter
{{6-30-05 p.7001}}the aggregate adjustment amount on a final line in the 1000 series of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A statement.
    (2)  During the phase-in period, as defined in  3500.17(b), an alternative procedure is available. The settlement agent may initially calculate the 1000 series deposits for the HUD--1 and HUD--1A settlement statement using single-item analysis with only a one-month cushion (unless the mortgage loan documents indicate a smaller amount). In the escrow account analysis conducted within 45 days of settlement, however, the servicer shall adjust the escrow account to reflect the aggregate accounting balance. Appendix E to this part sets out examples of aggregate analysis. Appendix A to this part contains instructions for completing the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statements using an aggregate analysis adjustment and the alternative process during the phase-in period.

  (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 2502--0265 and 2502--0491)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.8]

[Section 3500.8 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996, effective; 61 Fed. Reg. 29252, June 7, 1996, effective October 7, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58476, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997]



 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements.

  (a)  Permissible changes--HUD--1. The following changes and insertions are permitted when the HUD--1 settlement statement is reproduced:
    (1)  The person reproducing the HUD--1 may insert its business name and logotype in Section A and may rearrange, but not delete, the other information that appears in Section A.
    (2)  The name, address, and other information regarding the lender and settlement agent may be printed in Sections F and H, respectively.
    (3)  Reproduction of the HUD--1 must conform to the terminology, sequence, and numbering of line items as presented in lines 100--1400. However, blank lines or items listed in lines 100--1400 that are not used locally or in connection with mortgages by the lender may be deleted, except for the following: Lines 100, 120, 200, 220, 300, 301, 302, 303, 400, 420, 500, 520, 600, 601, 602, 603, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, and 1400. The form may be shortened correspondingly. The number of a deleted item shall not be used for a substitute or new item, but the number of a blank space on the HUD--1 may be used for a substitute or new item.
    (4)  Charges not listed on the HUD--1, but that are customary locally or pursuant to the lender's practice, may be inserted in blank spaces. Where existing blank spaces on the HUD--1 are insufficient, additional lines and spaces may be added and numbered in sequence with spaces on the HUD--1.
    (5)  The following variations in layout and format are within the discretion of persons reproducing the HUD--1 and do not require prior HUD approval: size of pages; tint or color of pages; size and style of type or print; vertical spacing between lines or provision for additional horizontal space on lines (for example, to provide sufficient space for recording time periods used in prorations); printing of the HUD--1 contents on separate pages, on the front and back of a single page, or on one continuous page; use of multicopy tear-out sets; printing on rolls for computer purposes; reorganization of Sections B through I, when necessary to accommodate computer printing; and manner of placement of the HUD number, but not the OMB approval number, neither of which may be deleted. The designation of the expiration date of the OMB number may be deleted. Any changes in the HUD number or OMB approval number may be announced by notice in the Federal Register, rather than by amendment of this part.
{{6-30-05 p.7002}}
    (6)  The borrower's information and the seller's information may be provided on separate pages.
    (7)  Signature lines may be added.
    (8)  The HUD--1 may be translated into languages other than English.
    (9)  An additional page may be attached to the HUD--1 for the purpose of including customary recitals and information used locally in real estate settlements; for example, breakdown of payoff figures, a breakdown of the borrower's total monthly mortgage payments, check disbursements, a statement indicating receipt of funds, applicable special stipulations between buyer and seller, and the date funds are transferred. If space permits, such information may be added at the end of the HUD--1.
    (10)  As required by HUD/FHA in FHA-insured loans.
    (11)  As allowed by
 3500.17, relating to an initial escrow account statement.
  (b)  Permissible changes--HUD--1A. The changes and insertions on the HUD--1 permitted under paragraph (a) of this section are also permitted when the HUD--1A settlement statement is reproduced, except the changes described in paragraphs (a)(3) and (6) of this section.
  (c)  Written approval. Any other deviation in the HUD--1 or HUD--1A forms is permissible only upon receipt of written approval of the Secretary. A request to the Secretary for approval shall be submitted in writing to the address indicated in
 3500.3 and shall state the reasons why the applicant believes such deviation is needed. The prescribed form(s) must be used until approval is received.

  (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 2502--0265 and 2502--0491)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.9]

[Section 3500.9 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.10 One day advance inspection of HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement, delivery; recordkeeping.

  (a)  Inspection one day prior to settlement upon request by the borrower. The settlement agent shall permit the borrower to inspect the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement, completed to set forth those items that are known to the settlement agent at the time of inspection, during the business day immediately preceding settlement. Items related only to the seller's transaction may be omitted from the HUD--1.
  (b)  Delivery. The settlement agent shall provide a completed HUD--1 or HUD--1A to the borrower, the seller (if there is one), the lender (if the lender is not the settlement agent), and/or their agents. When the borrower's and seller's copies of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A differ as permitted by the instructions in Appendix A to this part, both copies shall be provided to the lender (if the lender is not the settlement agent). The settlement agent shall deliver the completed HUD--1 or HUD--1A at or before the settlement, except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.
  (c)  Waiver. The borrower may waive the right to delivery of the completed HUD--1 or HUD--1A no later than at settlement by executing a written waiver at or before settlement. In such case, the completed HUD--1 or HUD--1A shall be mailed or delivered to the borrower, seller, and lender (if the lender is not the settlement agent) as soon as practicable after settlement.
  (d)  Exempt transactions. When the borrower or the borrower's agent does not attend the settlement, or when the settlement agent does not conduct a meeting of the parties for that purpose, the transaction shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, except that the HUD--1 or HUD--1A shall be mailed or delivered as soon as practicable after settlement.
{{6-30-05 p.7003}}
  (e)  Recordkeeping. The lender shall retain each completed HUD--1 or HUD--1A and related documents for five years after settlement, unless the lender disposes of its interest in the mortgage and does not service the mortgage. In that case, the lender shall provide its copy of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A to the owner or servicer of the mortgage as a part of the transfer of the loan file. Such owner or servicer shall retain the HUD--1 or HUD--1A for the remainder of the five-year period. The Secretary shall have the right to inspect or require copies of records covered by this paragraph (e).

  (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2502--0265)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.10]

[Section 3500.10 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.11 Mailing.

  The provisions of this part requiring or permitting mailing of documents shall be deemed to be satisfied by placing the document in the mail (whether or not received by the addressee) addressed to the addresses stated in the loan application or in other information submitted to or obtained by the lender at the time of loan application or submitted or obtained by the lender or settlement agent, except that a revised address shall be used where the lender or settlement agent has been expressly informed in writing of a change in address.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.11]

[Section 3500.11 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.12 No fee.

  No fee shall be imposed or charge made upon any other person, as a part of settlement costs or otherwise, by a lender in connection with a federally related mortgage loan made by it (or a loan for the purchase of a manufactured home), or by a servicer (as that term is defined under
12 U.S.C. 2605(i)(2)) for or on account of the preparation and distribution of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement, escrow account statements required pursuant to section 10 of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2609), or statements required by the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.12]

[Section 3500.12 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.13 Relation to state laws.

  (a)  State laws that are inconsistent with RESPA or this part are preempted to the extent of the inconsistency. However, RESPA and these regulations do not annul, alter, affect, or exempt any person subject to their provisions from complying with the laws of any State with respect to settlement practices, except to the extent of the inconsistency.
  (b)  Upon request by any person, the Secretary is authorized to determine if inconsistencies with State law exist; in doing so, the Secretary shall consult with appropriate Federal agencies.
    (1)  The Secretary may not determine that a State law or regulation is inconsistent with any provision of RESPA or this part, if the Secretary determines that such law or regulation gives greater protection to the consumer.
    (2)  In determining whether provisions of State law or regulations concerning affiliated business arrangements are inconsistent with RESPA or this part, the Secretary may not construe those provisions that impose more stringent limitations on affiliated
{{6-30-05 p.7004}}business arrangements as inconsistent with RESPA so long as they give more protection to consumers and/or competition.
  (c)  Any person may request the Secretary to determine whether an inconsistency exists by submitting to the address indicated in
 3500.3, a copy of the State law in question, any other law or judicial or administrative opinion that implements, interprets or applies the relevant provision, and an explanation of the possible inconsistency. A determination by the Secretary that an inconsistency with State law exists will be made by publication of a notice in the Federal Register. "Law" as used in this section includes regulations and any enactment which has the force and effect of law and is issued by a State or any political subdivision of a State.
  (d)  A specific preemption of conflicting State laws regarding notices and disclosures of mortgage servicing transfers is set forth in
 3500.21(h).

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.13]

[Section 3500.13 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58476, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997]



 3500.14 Prohibition against kickbacks and unearned fees.

  (a)  Section 8 violation. Any violation of this section is a violation of section 8 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2607) and is subject to enforcement as such under  3500.19.
  (b)  No referral fees. No person shall give and no person shall accept any fee, kickback or other thing of value pursuant to any agreement or understanding, oral or otherwise, that business incident to or part of a settlement service involving a federally related mortgage loan shall be referred to any person. Any referral of a settlement service is not a compensable service, except as set forth in  3500.14(g)(1). A business entity (whether or not in an affiliate relationship) may not pay any other business entity or the employees of any other business entity for the referral of settlement service business.
  (c)  No split of charges except for actual services performed. No person shall give and no person shall accept any portion, split, or percentage of any charge made or received for the rendering of a settlement service in connection with a transaction involving a federally related mortgage loan other than for services actually performed. A charge by a person for which no or nominal services are performed or for which duplicative fees are charged is an unearned fee and violates this section. The source of the payment does not determine whether or not a service is compensable. Nor may the prohibitions of this part be avoided by creating an arrangement wherein the purchaser of services splits the fee.
  (d)  Thing of value. This term is broadly defined in section 3(2) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2602(2)). It includes, without limitation, monies, things, discounts, salaries, commissions, fees, duplicate payments of a charge, stock, dividends, distributions of partnership profits, franchise royalties, credits representing monies that may be paid at a future date, the opportunity to participate in a money-making program, retained or increased earnings, increased equity in a parent or subsidiary entity, special bank deposits or accounts, special or unusual banking terms, services of all types at special or free rates, sales or rentals at special prices or rates, lease or rental payments based in whole or in part on the amount of business referred, trips and payment of another person's expenses, or reduction in credit against an existing obligation. The term "payment" is used throughout  3500.14 and 3500.15 as synonymous with the giving or receiving any "thing of value'' and does not require transfer of money.
  (e)  Agreement or understanding. An agreement or understanding for the referral of business incident to or part of a settlement service need not be written or verbalized but may be established by a practice, pattern or course of conduct. When a thing of value is received repeatedly and is connected in any way with the volume or value of the business referred, the receipt of the thing of value is evidence that it is made pursuant to an agreement or understanding for the referral of business.
{{6-30-05 p.7005}}
  (f)  Referral--(1) A referral includes any oral or written action directed to a person which has the effect of affirmatively influencing the selection by any person of a provider of a settlement service or business incident to or part of a settlement service when such person will pay for such settlement service or business incident thereto or pay a charge attributable in whole or in part to such settlement service or business.
    (2)  A referral also occurs whenever a person paying for a settlement service or business incident thereto is required to use (see
 3500.2, "required use") a particular provider of a settlement service or business incident thereto.
  (g)  Fees, salaries, compensation, or other payments. (1)
Section 8 of RESPA permits:
      (i)  A payment to an attorney at law for services actually rendered;
      (ii)  A payment by a title company to its duly appointed agent for services actually performed in the issuance of a policy of title insurance;
      (iii)  A payment by a lender to its duly appointed agent or contractor for services actually performed in the origination, processing, or funding of a loan;
      (iv)  A payment to any person of a bona fide salary or compensation or other payment for goods or facilities actually furnished or for services actually performed;
      (v)  A payment pursuant to cooperative brokerage and referral arrangements or agreements between real estate agents and real estate brokers. (The statutory exemption restated in this paragraph refers only to fee divisions within real estate brokerage arrangements when all parties are acting in a real estate brokerage capacity, and has no applicability to any fee arrangements between real estate brokers and mortgage brokers or between mortgage brokers.);
      (vi)  Normal promotional and educational activities that are not conditioned on the referral of business and that do not involve the defraying of expenses that otherwise would be incurred by persons in a position to refer settlement services or business incident thereto; or
      (vii)  An employer's payment to its own employees for any referral activities.
    (2)  The Department may investigate high prices to see if they are the result of a referral fee or a split of a fee. If the payment of a thing of value bears no reasonable relationship to the market value of the goods or services provided, then the excess is not for services or goods actually performed or provided. These facts may be used as evidence of a violation of section 8 and may serve as a basis for a RESPA investigation. High prices standing alone are not proof of a RESPA violation. The value of a referral (i.e., the value of any additional business obtained thereby) is not to be taken into account in determining whether the payment exceeds the reasonable value of such goods, facilities or services. The fact that the transfer of the thing of value does not result in an increase in any charge made by the person giving the thing of value is irrelevant in determining whether the act is prohibited.
    (3)  Multiple services. When a person in a position to refer settlement service business, such as an attorney, mortgage lender, real estate broker or agent, or developer or builder, receives a payment for providing additional settlement services as part of a real estate transaction, such payment must be for services that are actual, necessary and distinct from the primary services provided by such person. For example, for an attorney of the buyer or seller to receive compensation as a title agent, the attorney must perform core title agent services (for which liability arises) separate from attorney services, including the evaluation of the title search to determine the insurability of the title, the clearance of underwriting objections, the actual issuance of the policy or policies on behalf of the title insurance company, and, where customary, issuance of the title commitment, and the conducting of the title search and closing.
  (h)  Recordkeeping. Any documents provided pursuant to this section shall be retained for five (5) years from the date of execution.
  (i)  Appendix B of this part. Illustrations in
Appendix B of this part demonstrate some of the requirements of this section.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.14]

{{6-30-05 p.7006}}



[Section 3500.14 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 29252, June 7, 1996, effective October 7, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58476, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997]



 3500.15 Affiliated business arrangements.

  (a)  General. An affiliated business arrangement is defined in section 3(7) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2602(7)).
  (b)  Violation and exemption. An affiliated business arrangement is not a violation of section 8 of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2607) and of  3500.14 if the conditions set forth in this section are satisfied. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall not apply to the extent it is inconsistent with section 8(c)(4)(A) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2607(c)(4)(A)).
    (1)  Prior to the referral, the person making a referral has provided to each person whose business is referred a written disclosure, in the format of the Affiliated Business Arrangement Disclosure Statement set forth in Appendix D of this part. This disclosure shall specify the nature of the relationship (explaining the ownership and financial interest) between the person performing settlement services (or business incident thereto) and the person making the referral, and shall describe the estimated charge or range of charges (using the same terminology, as far as practical, as Section L of the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement) generally made by the provider of settlement services. The disclosure must be provided on a separate piece of paper no later than the time of each referral or, if the lender requires the use of a particular provider, the time of loan application, except that:
      (i)  Where a lender makes the referral to a borrower, the condition contained in paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be satisified at the time that the good faith estimate or a statement under
 3500.7(d) is provided; and
      (ii)  Whenever an attorney or law firm requires a client to use a particular title insurance agent, the attorney or law firm shall provide the disclosures no later than the time the attorney or law firm is engaged by the client. Failure to comply with the disclosure requirements of this section may be overcome if the person making a referral can prove by a preponderance of the evidence that procedures reasonably adopted to result in compliance with these conditions have been maintained and that any failure to comply with these conditions was unintentional and the result of a bona fide error. An error of legal judgment with respect to a person's obligations under RESPA is not a bona fide error. Administrative and judicial interpretations of
section 130(c) of the Truth in Lending Act shall not be binding interpretations of the preceding sentence or section 8(d)(3) of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2607(d)(3)).
    (2)  No person making a referral has required (as defined in
 3500.2, "required use") any person to use any particular provider of settlement services or business incident thereto, except if such person is a lender, for requiring a buyer, borrower or seller to pay for the services of an attorney, credit reporting agency, or real estate appraiser chosen by the
{{6-30-05 p.7007}}lender to represent the lender's interest in a real estate transaction, or except if such person is an attorney or law firm for arranging for issuance of a title insurance policy for a client, directly as agent or through a separate corporate title insurance agency that may be operated as an adjunct to the law practice of the attorney or law firm, as part of representation of that client in a real estate transaction.
    (3)  The only thing of value that is received from the arrangement other than payments listed in  3500.14(g) is a return on an ownership interest or franchise relationship.
      (i)  In an affiliated business arrangement:
        (A)  Bona fide dividends, and capital or equity distributions, related to ownership interest or franchise relationship, between entities in an affiliate relationship, are permissible; and
        (B)  Bona fide business loans, advances, and capital or equity contributions between entities in an affiliate relationship (in any direction), are not prohibited--so long as they are for ordinary business purposes and are not fees for the referral of settlement service business or unearned fees.
      (ii)  A return on an ownership interest does not include:
        (A)  Any payment which has as a basis of calculation no apparent business motive other than distinguishing among recipients of payments on the basis of the amount of their actual, estimated or anticipated referrals;
        (B)  Any payment which varies according to the relative amount of referrals by the different recipients of similar payments; or
        (C)  A payment based on an ownership, partnership or joint venture share which as been adjusted on the basis of previous relative referrals by recipients of similar payments.
      (iii)  Neither the mere labelling of a thing of value, nor the fact that it may be calculated pursuant to a corporate or partnership organizational document or a franchise agreement, will determine whether it is a bona fide return on an ownership interest or franchise relationship. Whether a thing of value is such a return will be determined by analyzing facts and circumstances on a case by case basis.
        (iv)  A return on franchise relationship may be a payment to or from a franchise but it does not include any payment which is not based on the franchise agreement, nor any payment which varies according to the number or amount of referrals by the franchisor or franchisee or which is based on a franchise agreement which has been adjusted on the basis of a previous number or amount of referrals by the franchiser or franchisees. A franchise agreement may not be constructed to insulate against kickbacks or referral fees.
  (c)  Definitions. As used in this section:
    (1)  Associate is defined in section 3(8) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2602(8)).
    (2)  Affiliate relationship means the relationship among business entities where one entity has effective control over the other by virtue of a partnership or other agreement or is under common control with the other by a third entity or where an entity is a corporation related to another corporation as parent to subsidiary by an identity of stock ownership.
    (3)  Beneficial ownership means the effective ownership of an interest in a provider of settlement services or the right to use and control the ownership interest involved even though legal ownership or title may be held in another person's name.
    (4)  Control as used in the definitions of "associate" and "affiliate relationship," means that a person:
      (i)  Is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of another person;
      (ii)  Directly or indirectly or acting in concert with others, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than 20 percent of the voting interests of another person;
      (iii)  Affirmatively influences in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of another person; or
      (iv)  Has contributed more than 20 percent of the capital of the other person.
{{6-30-05 p.7008}}
    (5)  Direct ownership means the holding of legal title to an interest in a provider of settlement service except where title is being held for the beneficial owner.
    (6)  Franchise is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(a).
    (7)  Franchisor is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(c).
    (8)  Franchisee defined in 16 CFR 436.2(d).
    (9)  Person who is in a position to refer settlement service business means any real estate broker or agent, lender, mortgage broker, builder or developer, attorney, title company, title agent, or other person deriving a significant portion of his or her gross income from providing settlement services.
  (d)  Recordkeeping. Any documents provided pursuant to this section shall be retained for 5 years after the date of execution.
  (e)  Appendix B of this part. Illustrations in
Appendix B of this part demonstrate some of the requirements of this section.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.15]

[Section 3500.15 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 29252, June 7, 1996, effective October 7, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 58476, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997]



 3500.16  Title companies.

  No seller of property that will be purchased with the assistance of a federally related mortgage loan shall violate section 9 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2608). Section 3500.2 defines "required use" of a provider of a settlement service. Section 3500.19(c) explains the liability of a seller for a violation of this section.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.16]

[Section 3500.16 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.17  Escrow accounts.

  (a)  General. This section sets out the requirements for an escrow account that a lender establishes in connection with a federally related mortgage loan. It sets limits for escrow accounts using calculations based on monthly payments and disbursements within a calendar year. If an escrow account involves biweekly or any other payment period, the requirements in this section shall be modified accordingly. A HUD Public Guidance Document entitled "Biweekly Payments--Example" provides examples of biweekly accounting and a HUD Public Guidance Document entitled "Annual Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Example" provides examples of a 3-year accounting cycle that may be used in accordance with paragraph (c)(9) of this section. A HUD Public Guidance Document entitled "Consumer Disclosure for Voluntary Escrow Account Payments" provides a model disclosure format that originators and servicers are encouraged, but not required, to provide to consumers when the originator or servicer anticipates a substantial increase in disbursements from the escrow account after the first year of the loan. The disclosures in that model format may be combined with or included in the Initial Escrow Account Statement required in  3500.17(g).
  (b)  Definitions. As used in this section:
  Acceptable accounting method means an accounting method that a servicer uses to conduct an escrow account analysis for an escrow account subject to the provisions of  3500.17(c).
  Aggregate (or) composite analysis, hereafter called aggregate analysis, means an accounting method a servicer uses in conducting an escrow account analysis by computing
{{6-30-05 p.7009}}the sufficiency of escrow account funds by analyzing the account as a whole. Appendix E to this part sets forth examples of aggregate escrow account analyses.
  Annual Escrow Account Statement means a statement containing all of the information set forth in  3500.17(i). As noted in  3500.17(i), a servicer shall submit an annual escrow account statement to the borrower within 30 calendar days of the end of the escrow account computation year, after conducting an escrow account analysis.
  Conversion date means the date three years after the publication date of the rule adding this section (i.e., October 27, 1997) by which date all servicers shall use aggregate analysis.
  Cushion or reserve (hereafter cushion) means funds that a servicer may require a borrower to pay into an escrow account to cover unanticipated disbursements or disbursements made before the borrower's payments are available in the account, as limited by  3500.17(c).
  Deficiency is the amount of a negative balance in an escrow account. As noted in  3500.17(f), if a servicer advances funds for a borrower, then the servicer must perform an escrow account analysis before seeking repayment of the deficiency.
  Delivery means the placing of a document in the United States mail, first-class postage paid, addressed to the last known address of the recipient. Hand delivery also constitutes delivery.
  Disbursement date means the date on which the servicer actually pays an escrow item from the escrow account.
  Escrow account means any account that a servicer establishes or controls on behalf of a borrower to pay taxes, insurance premiums (including flood insurance), or other charges with respect to a federally related mortgage loan, including charges that the borrower and servicer have voluntarily agreed that the servicer should collect and pay. The definition encompasses any account established for this purpose, including a "trust account", "reserve account", "impound account", or other term in different localities. An "escrow account" includes any arrangement where the servicer adds a portion of the borrower's payments to principal and subsequently deducts from principal the disbursements for escrow account items. For purposes of this section, the term "escrow account" excludes any account that is under the borrower's total control.
  Escrow account analysis means the accounting that a servicer conducts in the form of a trial running balance for an escrow account to:
    (1)  Determine the appropriate target balances;
    (2)  Compute the borrower's monthly payments for the next escrow account computation year and any deposits needed to establish or maintain the account; and
    (3)  Determine whether shortages, surpluses or deficiencies exist.
  Escrow account computation year is a 12-month period that a servicer establishes for the escrow account beginning with the borrower's initial payment date. The term includes each 12-month period thereafter, unless a servicer chooses to issue a short year statement under the conditions stated in  3500.17(i)(4).
  Escrow account item or separate item means any separate expenditure category, such as "taxes" or "insurance", for which funds are collected in the escrow account for disbursement. An escrow account item with installment payments, such as local property taxes, remains one escrow account item regardless of multiple disbursement dates to the tax authority.
  Initial escrow account statement means the first disclosure statement that the servicer delivers to the borrower concerning the borrower's escrow account. The initial escrow account statement shall meet the requirements of  3500.17(g) and be in substantially the format set forth in  3500.17(h).
  Installment payment means one of two or more payments payable on an escrow account item during an escrow account computation year. An example of an installment payment is where a jurisdiction bills quarterly for taxes.
  Payment due date means the date each month when the borrower's monthly payment to an escrow account is due to the servicer. The initial payment date is the borrower's first payment due date to an escrow account.
{{6-30-05 p.7010}}
  Penalty means a late charge imposed by the payee, for paying, after the disbursement is due. It does not include any additional charge or fee imposed by the payee associated with choosing installment payments as opposed to annual payments or for choosing one installment plan over another.
  Phase-in period means the period beginning on May 24, 1995 and ending on the conversion date, i.e., October 27, 1997, by which date all servicers shall use the aggregate accounting method in conducting escrow account analyses.
  Post-rule account means an escrow account established in connection with a federally related mortgage loan whose settlement date is on or after May 24, 1995.
  Pre-accrual is a practice some servicers use to require borrowers to deposit funds, needed for disbursement and maintenance of a cushion, in the escrow account some period before the disbursement date. Pre-accrual is subject to the limitations of  3500.17(c).
  Pre-rule account is an escrow account established in connection with a federally related mortgage loan whose settlement date is before May 24, 1995.
  Shortage means an amount by which a current escrow account balance falls short of the target balance at the time of escrow analysis.
  Single-item analysis means an accounting method servicers use in conducting an escrow account analysis by computing the sufficiency of escrow account funds by considering each escrow item separately.
Appendix E to this part sets forth examples of single-item analysis.
  Submission (of an escrow account statement) means the delivery of the statement.
  Surplus means an amount by which the current escrow account balance exceeds the target balance for the account.
  System of recordkeeping means the servicer's method of keeping information that reflects the facts relating to that servicer's handling of the borrower's escrow account, including, but not limited to, the payment of amounts from the escrow account and the submission of initial and annual escrow account statements to borrowers.
  Target balance means the estimated month end balance in an escrow account that is just sufficient to cover the remaining disbursements from the escrow account in the escrow account computation year, taking into account the remaining scheduled periodic payments, and a cushion, if any.
  Trial running balance means the accounting process that derives the target balances over the course of an escrow account computation year. Section 3500.17(d) provides a description of the steps involved in performing a trial running balance.
  (c)  Limits on payments to escrow accounts; acceptable accounting methods to determine limits.
    (1)  A lender or servicer (hereafter servicer) shall not require a borrower to deposit into any escrow account, created in connection with a federally related mortgage loan, more than the following amounts:
      (i)  Charges at settlement or upon creation of an escrow account. At the time a servicer creates an escrow account for a borrower, the servicer may charge the borrower an amount sufficient to pay the charges respecting the mortgaged property, such as taxes and insurance, which are attributable to the period from the date such payment(s) were last paid until the initial payment date. The "amount sufficient to pay" is computed so that the lowest month end target balance projected for the escrow account computation year is zero (--0--) (see Step 2 in Appendix E to this part). In addition, the servicer may charge the borrower a cushion that shall be no greater than one-sixth (1/6) of the estimated total annual payments from the escrow account.
      (ii)  Charges during the life of the escrow account. Throughout the life of an escrow account, the servicer may charge the borrower a monthly sum equal to one-twelfth (1/12) of the total annual escrow payments which the servicer reasonably anticipates paying from the account. In addition, the servicer may add an amount to maintain a cushion no greater than one-sixth (1/6) of the estimated total annual payments from the account. However, if a servicer determines through an escrow account analysis that there is a shortage or deficiency, the servicer may require the borrower to pay additional deposits to
{{6-30-05 p.7011}}make up the shortage or eliminate the deficiency, subject to the limitations set forth in  3500.17(f).
    (2)  Escrow analysis at creation of escrow account. Before establishing an escrow account, the servicer must conduct an escrow account analysis to determine the amount the borrower must deposit into the escrow account (subject to the limitations of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section), and the amount of the borrower's periodic payments into the escrow account (subject to the limitations of (c)(1)(ii) of this section). In conducting the escrow account analysis, the servicer must estimate the disbursement amounts according to paragraph (c)(7) of this section. Pursuant to paragraph (k) of this section, the servicer must use a date on or before the deadline to avoid a penalty as the disbursement date for the escrow item and comply with any other requirements of paragraph (k) of this section. Upon completing the initial escrow account analysis, the servicer must prepare and deliver an initial escrow account statement to the borrower, as set forth in paragraph (g) of this section. The servicer must use the escrow account analysis to determine whether a surplus, shortage, or deficiency exists and must make any adjustments to the account pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section.
    (3)  Subsequent escrow account analyses. For each escrow account, the servicer must conduct an escrow account analysis at the completion of the escrow account computation year to determine the borrower's monthly escrow account payments for the next computation year, subject to the limitations of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. In conducting the escrow account analysis, the servicer must estimate the disbursement amounts according to paragraph (c)(7) of this section. Pursuant to paragraph (k) of this section, the servicer must use a date on or before the deadline to avoid a penalty as the disbursement date for the escrow item and comply with any other requirements of paragraph (k) of this section. The servicer must use the escrow account analysis to determine whether a surplus, shortage, or deficiency exists, and must make any adjustments to the account pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section. Upon completing an escrow account analysis, the servicer must prepare and submit an annual escrow account statement to the borrower, as set forth in paragraph (i) of this section.
    (4)  Acceptable account methods to determine escrow limits. The following are acceptable accounting methods that servicers may use in conducting an escrow account analysis.
      (i)  Pre-rule accounts. For pre-rule accounts, servicers may use either single-item analysis or aggregate-analysis during the phase-in period. In conducting the escrow account analysis, servicers shall use "month-end" accounting. Under month-end accounting, the timing of the disbursements and payments within the month is irrelevant. As of the conversion date, all pre-rule accounts shall comply with the requirements for post-rule accounts in paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section. During the phase-in period, the transfer of servicing of a pre-rule account to another servicer does not convert the account to a post-rule account. After May 24, 1995, refinancing transactions (as defined in  3500.2) shall comply with the requirements for post-rule accounts.
      (ii)  Post-rule accounts. For post-rule accounts, servicers shall use aggregate accounting to conduct an escrow account analysis. In conducting the escrow account analysis, servicers shall use "month-end" accounting. Under month-end accounting, the timing of the disbursements and payments within the month is irrelevant.
    (5)  Cushion. For post-rule accounts, the cushion shall be no greater than one-sixth (1/6) of the estimated total annual disbursements from the escrow account using aggregate analysis accounting. For pre-rule accounts, the cushion may not exceed the total of one-sixth of the estimated annual disbursements for each escrow account item using single-item analysis accounting. In determining the cushion using single-item analysis, a servicer shall not divide an escrow account item into sub-accounts, even if the payee requires installment payments.
    (6)  Restrictions on pre-accrual. For pre-rule accounts, a servicer shall not require any pre-accrual that results in the escrow account balance exceeding the limits of paragraph (c)(1) of this section. In addition, if the mortgage documents in a pre-rule account are silent
{{6-30-05 p.7012}}about the amount of pre-accrual, the servicer shall not require in excess of one month of pre-accrual, subject to the additional limitations provided in paragraph (c)(8) of this section. For post-rule accounts, a servicer shall not practice pre-accrual.
    (7)  Servicer estimates of disbursement amounts. To conduct an escrow account analysis, the servicer shall estimate the amount of escrow account items to be disbursed. If the servicer knows the charge for an escrow item in the next computation year, then the servicer shall use that amount in estimating disbursement amounts. If the charge is unknown to the servicer, the servicer may base the estimate on the preceding year's charge, or the preceding year's charge as modified by an amount not exceeding the most recent year's change in the national Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI, all items). In cases of unassessed new construction, the servicer may base an estimate on the assessment of comparable residential property in the market area.
    (8)  Provisions in mortgage documents. The servicer shall examine the mortgage loan documents to determine the applicable cushion and limitations on pre-accrual for each escrow account. If the mortgage loan documents provide for lower cushion limits or less pre-accrual than this section, then the terms of the loan documents apply. Where the terms of any mortgage loan document allow greater payments to an escrow account than allowed by this section, then this section controls the applicable limits. Where the mortgage loan documents do not specifically establish an escrow account, whether a servicer may establish an escrow account for the loan is matter for determination by State law. If the mortgage loan document is silent on the escrow account limits (for cushion or pre-accrual) and a servicer establishes an escrow account under State law, then the limitations of this section apply unless State law provides for a lower amount. If the loan documents provide for escrow accounts up to the RESPA limits, then the servicer may require the maximum amounts consistent with this section, unless an applicable State law sets a lesser amount.
    (9)  Assessments for periods longer than one year. Some escrow account items may be billed for periods longer than one year. For example, servicers may need to collect flood insurance or water purification escrow funds for payment every three years. In such cases, the servicer shall estimate the borrower's payments for a full cycle of disbursements. For a flood insurance premium payable every 3 years, the servicer shall collect the payments reflecting 36 equal monthly amounts. For two out of the three years, however, the account balance may not reach its low monthly balance because the low point will be on a three-year cycle, as compared to an annual one. The annual escrow account statement shall explain this situation (see example in the HUD Public Guidance Document entitled "Annual Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Example", available in accordance with  3500.3).
  (d)  Methods of escrow account analysis. Paragraph (c) of this section prescribes acceptable accounting methods. The following sets forth the steps servicers shall use to determine whether their use of an acceptable accounting method conforms with the limitations in  3500.17(c)(1). The steps set forth in this section derive maximum limits. Servicers may use accounting procedures that result in lower target balances. In particular, servicers may use a cushion less than the permissible cushion or no cushion at all. This section does not require the use of a cushion.
    (1)  Aggregate analysis. (i)  When a servicer uses aggregate analysis in conducting the escrow account analysis, the target balances may not exceed the balances computed according to the following arithmetic operations:
        (A)  The servicer first projects a trial balance for the account as a whole over the next computation year (a trial running balance). In doing so the servicer assumes that it will make estimated disbursements on or before the earlier of the deadline to take advantage of discounts, if available, or the deadline to avoid a penalty. The servicer does not use pre-accrual on these disbursement dates. The servicer also assumes that the borrower will make monthly payments equal to one-twelfth of the estimated total annual escrow account disbursements.
        (B)  The servicer then examines the monthly trial balances and adds to the first monthly balance an amount just sufficient to bring the lowest monthly trial balance to zero, and adjusts all other monthly balances accordingly.
{{6-30-05 p.7013}}
        (C)  The servicer then adds to the monthly balances the permissible cushion. The cushion is two months of the borrower's escrow payments to the servicer or a lesser amount specified by State law or the mortgage document (net of any increases or decreases because of prior year shortages or surpluses, respectively).
      (ii)  Lowest monthly balance. Under aggregate analysis, the lowest monthly target balance for the account shall be less than or equal to one-sixth of the estimated total annual escrow account disbursements or a lesser amount specified by State law or the mortgage document. The target balances that the servicer derives using these steps yield the maximum limit for the escrow account. Appendix E to this part illustrates these steps.
    (2)  Single-item or other non-aggregate analysis method. (i)  When a servicer uses single-item analysis or any hybrid accounting method in conducting an escrow account analysis during the phase-in period, the target balances may not exceed the balances computed according to the following arithmetic operations:
        (A)  The servicer first projects a trial balance for each item over the next computation year (a trial running balance). In doing so the servicer assumes that it will make estimated disbursements on or before the earlier of the deadline to take advantage of discounts, if available, or the deadline to avoid a penalty. The servicer does not use pre-accural on these disbursement dates. The servicer also assumes that the borrower will make periodic payments equal to one-twelfth of the estimated total annual escrow account disbursements.
        (B)  The servicer then examines the monthly trial balance for each escrow account item and adds to the first monthly balance for each separate item an amount just sufficient to bring the lowest monthly trial balance for that item to zero, and then adjusts all other monthly balances accordingly.
        (C)  The servicer then adds the permissible cushion, if any, to the monthly balance for the separate escrow account item. The permissible cushion is two months of escrow payments for the escrow account item (net of any increases or decreases because of prior year shortages or surpluses, respectively) or a lesser amount specified by State law or the mortgage document.
        (D)  The servicer then examines the balances for each item to make certain that the lowest monthly balance for that item is less than or equal to one-sixth of the estimated total annual escrow account disbursements for that item or a lesser amount specified by State law or the mortgage document.
      (ii)  In performing an escrow account analysis using single-item analysis, servicers may account for each escrow account item separately, but servicers shall not further divide accounts into sub-accounts, even if the payee of a disbursement requires installment payments. The target balances that the servicer derives using these steps yield the maximum limit for the escrow account. Appendix E to this part illustrates these steps.
  (e)  Transfer of servicing. (1)  If the new servicer changes either the monthly payment amount or the accounting method used by the transferor (old) servicer, then the new servicer shall provide the borrower with an initial escrow account statement within 60 days of the date of servicing transfer.
      (i)  Where a new servicer provides an initial escrow account statement upon the transfer of servicing, the new servicer shall use the effective date of the transfer of servicing to establish the new escrow account computation year.
      (ii)  Where the new servicer retains the monthly payments and accounting method used by the transferor servicer, then the new servicer may continue to use the escrow account computation year established by the transferor servicer or may choose to establish a different computation year using a short-year statement. At the completion of the escrow account computation year or any short year, the new servicer shall perform an escrow analysis and provide the borrower with an annual escrow account statement.
    (2)  The new servicer shall treat shortages, surpluses and deficiencies in the transferred escrow account according to the procedures set forth in  3500.17(f).
    (3)  A pre-rule account remains a pre-rule account upon the transfer of servicing to a new servicer so long as the transfer occurs before the conversion date.
{{6-30-05 p.7014}}
  (f)  Shortages, surpluses, and deficiencies requirements. (1)  Escrow account analysis. For each escrow account, the servicer shall conduct an escrow account analysis to determine whether a surplus, shortage or deficiency exists.
      (i)  As noted in  3500.17(c)(2) and (3), the servicer shall conduct an escrow account analysis upon establishing an escrow account and at completion of the escrow account computation year.
      (ii)  The servicer may conduct an escrow account analysis at other times during the escrow computation year. If a servicer advances funds in paying a disbursement, which is not the result of a borrower's payment default under the underlying mortgage document, then the servicer shall conduct an escrow account analysis to determine the extent of the deficiency before seeking repayment of the funds from the borrower under this paragraph (f).
    (2)  Surpluses. (i)  If an escrow account analysis discloses a surplus, the servicer shall, within 30 days from the date of the analysis, refund the surplus to the borrower if the surplus is greater than or equal to 50 dollars ($50). If the surplus is less than 50 dollars ($50), the servicer may refund such amount to the borrower, or credit such amount against the next year's escrow payments.
      (ii)  These provisions regarding surpluses apply if the borrower is current at the time of the escrow account analysis. A borrower is current if the servicer receives the borrower's payments within 30 days of the payment due date. If the servicer does not receive the borrower's payment within 30 days of the payment due date, then the servicer may retain the surplus in the escrow account pursuant to the terms of the mortgage loan documents.
      (iii)  After an initial or annual escrow analysis has been performed, the servicer and the borrower may enter into a voluntary agreement for the forthcoming escrow accounting year for the borrower to deposit funds into the escrow account for that year greater than the limits established under paragraph (c) of this section. Such an agreement shall cover only one escrow accounting year, but a new voluntary agreement may be entered into after the next escrow analysis is performed. The voluntary agreement may not alter how surpluses are to be treated when the next escrow analysis is performed at the end of the escrow accounting year covered by the voluntary agreement.
    (3)  Shortages. (i)  If an escrow account analysis discloses a shortage of less than one month's escrow account payment, then the servicer has three possible courses of action:
        (A)  The servicer may allow a shortage to exist and do nothing to change it;
        (B)  The servicer may require the borrower to repay the shortage amount within 30 days; or
        (C)  The servicer may require the borrower to repay the shortage amount in equal monthly payments over at least a 12-month period.
      (ii)  If an escrow account analysis discloses a shortage that is greater than or equal to one month's escrow account payment, then the servicer has two possible courses of action:
        (A)  The servicer may allow a shortage to exist and do nothing to change it; or
        (B)  The servicer may require the borrower to repay the shortage in equal monthly payments over at least a 12-month period.
    (4)  Deficiency. If the escrow account analysis confirms a deficiency, then the servicer may require the borrower to pay additional monthly deposits to the account to eliminate the deficiency.
      (i)  If the deficiency is less than one month's escrow account payment, then the servicer:
        (A)  May allow the deficiency to exist and do nothing to change it;
        (B)  May require the borrower to repay the deficiency within 30 days; or
        (C)  May require the borrower to repay the deficiency in 2 or more equal monthly payments.
{{6-30-05 p.7015}}
      (ii)  If the deficiency is greater than or equal to 1 month's escrow payment, the servicer may allow the deficiency to exist and do nothing to change it or may require the borrower to repay the deficiency in two or more equal monthly payments.
      (iii)  These provisions regarding deficiencies apply if the borrower is current at the time of the escrow account analysis. A borrower is current if the servicer receives the borrower's payments within 30 days of the payment due date. If the servicer does not receive the borrower's payment within 30 days of the payment due date, then the servicer may recover the deficiency pursuant to the terms of the mortgage loan documents.
    (5)  Notice of Shortage or Deficiency in Escrow Account. The servicer shall notify the borrower at least once during the escrow account computation year if there is a shortage or deficiency in the escrow account. The notice may be part of the annual escrow account statement or it may be a separate document.
  (g)  Initial Escrow Account Statement. (1)  Submission at settlement, or within 45 calendar days of settlement. As noted in  3500.17(c)(2), the servicer shall conduct an escrow account analysis before establishing an escrow account to determine the amount the borrower shall deposit into the escrow account, subject to the limitations of  3500.17(c)(1)(i). After conducting the escrow account analysis for each escrow account, the servicer shall submit an initial escrow account statement to the borrower at settlement or within 45 calendar days of settlement for escrow accounts that are established as a condition of the loan.
      (i)  The initial escrow account statement shall include the amount of the borrower's monthly mortgage payment and the portion of the monthly payment going into the escrow account and shall itemize the estimated taxes, insurance premiums, and other charges that the servicer reasonably anticipates to be paid from the escrow account during the escrow account computation year and the anticipated disbursement dates of those charges. The initial escrow account statement shall indicate the amount that the service selects as a cushion. The statement shall include a trial running balance for the account.
      (ii)  Pursuant to  3500.17(h)(2), the servicer may incorporate the initial escrow account statement into the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement. If the servicer does not incorporate the initial escrow account statement into the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement, then the servicer shall submit the initial escrow account statement to the borrower as a separate document.
    (2)  Time of submission of initial escrow account statement for an escrow account established after settlement. For escrow accounts established after settlement (and which are not a condition of the loan), a servicer shall submit an initial escrow account statement to a borrower within 45 calendar days of the date of establishment of the escrow account.
  (h)  Format for initial account statement. (1)  The format and a completed example for an initial escrow account statement are set out in HUD Public Guidance Documents entitled "Initial Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Format" and "Initial Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Example", available in accordance with
 3500.3.
    (2)  Incorporation of Initial Escrow Account Statement Into HUD-1 or HUD-1A Settlement Statement. Pursuant to
 3500.9(a)(11), a servicer may add the initial escrow account statement to the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement. The servicer may include the initial escrow account statement in the basic text or may attach the initial escrow account statement as an additional page to the HUD--1 or HUD--1A settlement statement.
    (3)  Identification of Payees. The initial escrow account statement need not identify a specific payee by name if it provides sufficient information to identify the use of the funds. For example, appropriate entries include: county taxes, hazard insurance, condominium dues, etc. If a particular payee, such as a taxing body, receives more than one payment during the escrow account computation year, the statement shall indicate each payment and disbursement date. If there are several taxing authorities or insurers, the statement shall identify each taxing body or insurer (e.g., "City Taxes", "School Taxes", "Hazard Insurance", or "Flood Insurance," etc.).
{{6-30-05 p.7016}}
  (i)  Annual Escrow Account Statements. For each escrow account, a servicer shall submit an annual escrow account statement to the borrower within 30 days of the completion of the escrow account computation year. The servicer shall also submit to the borrower the previous year's projection or initial escrow account statement. The servicer shall conduct an escrow account analysis before submitting an annual escrow account statement to the borrower.
    (1)  Contents of Annual Escrow Account Statement. The annual escrow account statement shall provide an account history, reflecting the activity in the escrow account during the escrow account computation year, and a projection of the activity in the account for the next year. In preparing the statement, the servicer may assume scheduled payments and disbursements will be made for the final 2 months of the escrow account computation year. The annual escrow account statement must include, at a minimum, the following (the items in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) through (i)(1)(iv) must be clearly itemized):
      (i)  The amount of the borrower's current monthly mortgage payment and the portion of the monthly payment going into the escrow account;
      (ii)  The amount of the past year's monthly mortgage payment and the portion of the monthly payment that went into the escrow account;
      (iii)  The total amount paid into the escrow account during the past computation year;
      (iv)  The total amount paid out of the escrow account during the same period for taxes, insurance premiums, and other charges (as separately identified);
      (v)  The balance in the escrow account at the end of the period;
      (vi)  An explanation of how any surplus is being handled by the servicer;
      (vii)  An explanation of how any shortage or deficiency is to be paid by the borrower; and
      (viii)  If applicable, the reason(s) why the estimated low monthly balance was not reached, as indicated by noting differences between the most recent account history and last year's projection. HUD Public Guidance Documents entitled "Annual Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Format" and "Annual Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Example" set forth an acceptable format and methodology for conveying this information.
    (2)  No annual statements in the case of default, foreclosure, or bankruptcy. This paragraph (i)(2) contains an exemption from the provisions of  3500.17(i)(1). If at the time the servicer conducts the escrow account analysis the borrower is more than 30 days overdue, then the servicer is exempt from the requirements of submitting an annual escrow account statement to the borrower under  3500.17(i). This exemption also applies in situations where the servicer has brought an action for foreclosure under the underlying mortgage loan, or where the borrower is in bankruptcy proceedings. If the servicer does not issue an annual statement pursuant to this exemption and the loan subsequently is reinstated or otherwise becomes current, the servicer shall provide a history of the account since the last annual statement (which may be longer than 1 year) within 90 days of the date the account became current.
    (3)  Delivery with other material. The servicer may deliver the annual escrow account statement to the borrower with other statements or materials, including the Substitute 1098, which is provided for federal income tax purposes.
    (4)  Short year statements. A servicer may issue a short year annual escrow account statement ("short year statement") to change one escrow account computation year to another. By using a short year statement a servicer may adjust its production schedule or alter the escrow account computation year for the escrow account.
      (i)  Effect of short year statement. The short year statement shall end the "escrow account computation year" for the escrow account and establish the beginning date of the new escrow account computation year. The servicer shall deliver the short year statement to the borrower within 60 days from the end of the short year.
      (ii)  Short year statement upon servicing transfer. Upon the transfer of servicing, the transferor (old) servicer shall submit a short year statement to the borrower within 60 days of the effective date of transfer.
{{10-31-07 p.7017}}
      (iii)  Short year statement upon loan payoff. If a borrower pays off a mortgage loan during the escrow account computation year, the servicer shall submit a short year statement to the borrower within 60 days after receiving the pay-off funds.
  (j)  Formats for annual escrow account statement. The formats and completed examples for annual escrow account statements using single-item analysis (pre-rule accounts) and aggregate analysis are set out in HUD Public Guidance Documents entitled "Annual Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Format" and "Annual Escrow Account Disclosure Statement--Example".
  (k)  Timely payments. (1)  If the terms of any federally related mortgage loan require the borrower to make payments to an escrow account, the servicer must pay the disbursements in a timely manner, that is, on or before the deadline to avoid a penalty, as long as the borrower's payment is not more than 30 days overdue.
    (2)  The servicer must advance funds to make disbursements in a timely manner as long as the borrower's payment is not more than 30 days overdue. Upon advancing funds to pay a disbursement, the servicer may seek repayment from the borrower for the deficiency pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section.
    (3)  For the payment of property taxes from the escrow account, if a taxing jurisdiction offers a servicer a choice between annual and installment disbursements, the servicer must also comply with this paragraph (k)(3). If the taxing jurisdiction neither offers a discount for disbursements on a lump sum annual basis nor imposes any additional charge or fee for installment disbursements, the servicer must make disbursements on an installment basis. If, however, the taxing jurisdiction offers a discount for disbursements on a lump sum annual basis or imposes any additional charge or fee for installment disbursements, the servicer may at the servicer's discretion (but is not required by RESPA to), make lump sum annual disbursements in order to take advantage of the discount for the borrower or avoid the additional charge or fee for installments, as long as such method of disbursement complies with paragraphs (k)(1) and (k)(2) of this section. HUD encourages, but does not require, the servicer to follow the preference of the borrower, if such preference is known to the servicer.
    (4)  Notwithstanding paragraph (k)(3) of this section, a servicer and borrower may mutually agree, on an individual case basis, to a different disbursement basis (installment or annual) or disbursement date for property taxes from that required under paragraph (k)(3) of this section, so long as the agreement meets the requirements of paragraphs (k)(1) and (k)(2) of this section. The borrower must voluntarily agree; neither loan approval nor any term of the loan may be conditioned on the borrower's agreeing to a different disbursement basis or disbursement date.
  (l)  System of recordkeeping. (1)  Each servicer shall keep records, which may involve electronic storage, microfiche storage, or any method of computerized storage, so long as the information is easily retrievable, reflecting the servicer's handling of each borrower's escrow account. The servicer's records shall include, but not be limited to, the payment of amounts into and from the escrow account and the submission of initial and annual escrow account statements to the borrower.
    (2)  The servicer responsible for servicing the borrower's escrow account shall maintain the records for that account for a period of at least five years after the servicer last serviced the escrow account.
    (3)  A servicer shall provide the Secretary with information contained in the servicer's records for a specific escrow account, or for a number or class of escrow accounts, within 30 days of the Secretary's written request for the information. The servicer shall convert any information contained in electronic storage, microfiche or computerized storage to paper copies for review by the Secretary.
      (i)  To aid in investigations, the Secretary may also issue an administrative subpoena for the production of documents, and for the testimony of such witnesses as the Secretary deems advisable.
      (ii)  If the subpoenaed party refuses to obey the Secretary's administrative subpoena, the Secretary is authorized to seek a court order requiring compliance with the
{{10-31-07 p.7018}}subpoena from any United States district court. Failure to obey such an order of the court may be punished as contempt of court.
    (4)  Borrower may seek information contained in the servicer's records by complying with the provisions set forth in
12 U.S.C. 2605(e) and  3500.21(f).
    (5)  After receiving a request (by letter or subpoena) from the Department for information relating to whether a servicer submitted an escrow account statement to the borrower, the servicer shall respond within 30 days. If the servicer is unable to provide the Department with such information, the Secretary shall deem that lack of information to be evidence of the servicer's failure to submit the statement to the borrower.
  (m)  Penalties. A servicer's failure to submit to a borrower an initial or annual escrow account statement meeting the requirements of this part shall constitute a violation of section 10(d) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2609(d)) and this section. For each such violation, the Secretary shall assess a civil penalty of 75 dollars ($75), except that the total of the assessed penalties shall not exceed $130,000 for any one servicer for violations that occur during any consecutive 12-month period.
  (n)  Civil penalties procedures. The following procedures shall apply whenever the Department seeks to impose a civil money penalty for violation of section 10(c) of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2609(c)):
    (1)  Purpose and scope. This paragraph (n) explains the procedures by which the Secretary may impose penalties under 12 U.S.C. 2609(d). These procedures include administrative hearings, judicial review, and collection of penalties. This paragraph (n) governs penalties imposed under 12 U.S.C. 2609(d) and, when noted, adopts those portions of 24 CFR part 30, subpart E, that apply to all other civil penalty proceedings initiated by the Secretary.
    (2)  Authority. The Secretary has the authority to impose civil penalties under section 10(d) of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2609(d)).
    (3)  Notice of intent to impose civil money penalties. Whenever the Secretary intends to impose a civil money penalty for violations of section 10(c) of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2609(c)), the responsible program official, or his or her designee, shall serve a written Notice of Intent to Impose Civil Money Penalties (Notice of Intent) upon any servicer on which the Secretary intends to impose the penalty. A copy of the Notice of Intent must be filed with the Chief Docket Clerk, Office of Administrative Law Judges, at the address provided in the Notice of Intent. The Notice of Intent will provide:
      (i)  A short, plain statement of the facts upon which the Secretary has determined that a civil money penalty should be imposed, including a brief description of the specific violations under 12 U.S.C. 2609(c) with which the servicer is charged and whether such violations are believed to be intentional or unintentional in nature, or a combination thereof;
      (ii)  The amount of the civil money penalty that the Secretary intends to impose and whether the limitations in 12 U.S.C. 2609(d)(1), apply;
      (iii)  The right of the servicer to a hearing on the record to appeal the Secretary's preliminary determination to impose a civil penalty;
      (iv)  The procedures to appeal the penalty;
      (v)  The consequences of failure to appeal the penalty; and
      (vi)  The name, address, and telephone number of the representative of the Department, and the address of the Chief Docket Clerk, Office of Administrative Law Judges, should the servicer decide to appeal the penalty.
    (4)  Appeal procedures. (i)  Answer. To appeal the imposition of a penalty, a servicer shall, within 30 days after receiving service of the Notice of Intent, file a written Answer with the Chief Docket Clerk, Office of Administrative Law Judges, Department of Housing and Urban Development, at the address provided in the Notice of Intent. The Answer shall include a statement that the servicer admits, denies, or does not have (and is unable to obtain) sufficient information to admit or deny each allegation made in the Notice of Intent. A statement of lack of information shall have the effect of a denial. Any allegation that is not denied shall be deemed admitted. Failure to submit an Answer within the required period of time will result in a decision by the Administrative Law Judge based upon the Department's submission of evidence in the Notice of Intent.
{{12-31-07 p.7019}}
      (ii)  Submission of evidence. A servicer that receives the Notice of Intent has a right to present evidence. Evidence must be submitted within 45 calendar days from the date of service of the Notice of Intent, or by such other time as may be established by the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ). The servicer's failure to submit evidence within the required period of time will result in a decision by the Administrative Law Judge based upon the Department's submission of evidence in the Notice of Intent. The servicer may present evidence of the following:
        (A)  The servicer did submit the required escrow account statement(s) to the borrower(s); or
        (B)  Even if the servicer did not submit the required statement(s), that the failure was not the result of an intentional disregard of the requirements of RESPA (for purposes of determining the penalty).
      (iii)  Review of the record. The Administrative Law Judge will review the evidence submitted by the servicer, if any, and that submitted by the Department. The Administrative Law Judge shall make a determination based upon a review of the written record, except that the Administrative Law Judge may order an oral hearing if he or she finds that the determination turns on the credibility or veracity of a witness, or that the matter cannot be resolved by review of the documentary evidence. If the Administrative Law Judge decides that an oral hearing is appropriate, then the procedural rules set forth at 24 CFR part 30, subpart E, shall apply, to the extent that they are not inconsistent with this section.
      (iv)  Burden of Proof. The burden of proof or the burden of going forward with the evidence shall be upon the proponent of an action. The Department's submission of evidence that the servicer's system of records lacks information that the servicer submitted the escrow account statement(s) to the borrower(s) shall satisfy the Department's burden. Upon the Department's presentation of evidence of this lack of information in the servicer's system of records, the burden of proof shifts from the Secretary to the servicer to provide evidence that it submitted the statement(s) to the borrower.
      (v)  Standard of Proof. The standard of proof shall be the preponderance of the evidence.
    (5)  Determination of the Administrative Law Judge.
      (i)  Following the hearing or the review of the written record, the Administrative Law Judge shall issue a decision that shall contain findings of fact, conclusions of law, and the amount of any penalties imposed. The decision shall include a determination of whether the servicer has failed to submit any required statements and, if so, whether the servicer's failure was the result of an intentional disregard for the law's requirements.
      (ii)  The Administrative Law Judge shall issue the decision to all parties within 30 days of the submission of the evidence or the post-hearing briefs, whichever is the last to occur.
      (iii)  The decision of the Administrative Law Judge shall constitute the final decision of the Department and shall be final and binding on the parties.
    (6)  Judicial review. (i)  A person against whom the Department has imposed a civil money penalty under this part may obtain a review of the Department's final decision by filing a written petition for a review of the record with the appropriate United States district court.
      (ii)  The petition must be filed within 30 days after the decision is filed with the Chief Docket Clerk, Office of Administrative Law Judges.
    (7)  Collection of penalties. (i)  If any person fails to comply with the Department's final decision imposing a civil money penalty, the Secretary, if the time for judical review of the decision has expired, may request the Attorney General to bring an action in an appropriate United States district court to obtain a judgment against the person that has failed to comply with the Department's final decision.
      (ii)  In any such collection action, the validity and appropriateness of the Department's final decision imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review in the district court.
{{12-31-07 p.7020}}
      (iii)  The Secretary may obtain such other relief as may be available, including attorney fees and other expenses in connection with the collection action.
      (iv)  Interest on and other charges for any unpaid penalty may be assessed in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3717.
    (8)  Offset. In addition to any other rights as a creditor, the Secretary may seek to collect a civil money penalty through administrative offset.
    (9)  At any time before the decision of the Administrative Law Judge, the Secretary and the servicer may enter into an administrative settlement. The settlement may include provisions for interest, attorney's fees, and costs related to the proceeding. Such settlement will terminate the appearance before the Administrative Law Judge.
  (o)  Discretionary payments. Any borrower's discretionary payment (such as credit life or disability insurance) made as part of a monthly mortgage payment is to be noted on the initial and annual statements. If a discretionary payment is established or terminated during the escrow account computation year, this change should be noted on the next annual statement. A discretionary payment is not part of the escrow account unless the payment is required by the lender, in accordance with the definition of "settlement service" in
 3500.2, or the servicer chooses to place the discretionary payment in the escrow account. If a servicer has not established an escrow account for a federally related mortgage loan and only receives payments for discretionary items, this section is not applicable.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2502-0501)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.17]

[Section 3500.17 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 29252, June 7, 1996, effective October 7, 1996; 61 Fed. Reg. 46510, September 3, 1996, 61 Fed. Reg. 58476, November 15, 1996, effective January 14, 1997; 63 Fed. Reg. 3236, January 21, 1998, effective February 20, 1998; 68 Fed. Reg. 12789, March 17, 2003, effective April 16, 2003; 72 Fed. Reg. 5589, February 6, 2007, effective March 8, 2007]



 3500.18  Validity of contracts and liens.

  Section 17 of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2615) governs the validity of contracts and liens under RESPA.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.18]

[Section 3500.18 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.19  Enforcement.

  (a)  Enforcement Policy. It is the policy of the Secretary regarding RESPA enforcement matters to cooperate with Federal, State, or local agencies having supervisory powers over lenders or other persons with responsibilities under RESPA. Federal agencies with supervisory powers over lenders may use their powers to require compliance with RESPA. In addition, failure to comply with RESPA may be grounds for administrative action by the Secretary under 2 CFR part 2424 concerning debarment, suspension, ineligibility of contractors and grantees, or under part 25 of this title concerning the HUD Mortgagee Review Board. Nothing in this paragraph is a limitation on any other form of enforcement which may be legally available.
  (b)  
Violations of section 8 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2607),  3500.14, or  3500.15. Any person who violates  3500.14 or 3500.15 shall be deemed to violate Section 8 of RESPA and shall be sanctioned accordingly.
{{12-31-07 p.7021}}
  (c)  
Violations of section 9 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2608) or  3500.16. Any person who violates Section 3500.16 of this part shall be deemed to violate Section 9 of RESPA and shall be sanctioned accordingly.
  (d)  Investigations. The procedures for investigations and investigational proceedings are set forth in 24 CFR part 3800.

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.19]

[Section 3500.19 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996; 72 Fed. Reg. 73497, December 27, 2007, effective January 28, 2008]



 3500.20  [Reserved]

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.20]

[Section 3500.20 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 13233, March 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]



 3500.21  Mortgage servicing transfers.

  (a)  Definitions. As used in this section:
  Master servicer means the owner of the right to perform servicing, which may actually perform the servicing itself or may do so through a subservicer.
  Mortgage servicing loan means a federally related mortgage loan, as that term is defined in
 3500.2, subject to the exemptions in  3500.5, when the mortgage loan is secured by a first lien. The definition does not include subordinate lien loans or open-end lines of credit (home equity plans) covered by the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z, including open-end lines of credit secured by a first lien.
  Qualified written request means a written correspondence from the borrower to the servicer prepared in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section.
  Subservicer means a servicer who does not own the right to perform servicing, but who does so on behalf of the master servicer.
  Transferee servicer means a servicer who obtains or who will obtain the right to perform servicing functions pursuant to an agreement or understanding.
  Transferor servicer means a servicer, including a table funding mortgage broker or dealer on a first lien dealer loan, who transfers or will transfer the right to perform servicing functions pursuant to an agreement or understanding.
  (b)  Servicing Disclosure Statement and Applicant Acknowledgement; requirements.  (1)  At the time an application for a mortgage servicing loan is submitted, or within 3 business days after submission of the application, the lender, mortgage broker who anticipates using table funding, or dealer who anticipates a first lien dealer loan shall provide to each person who applies for such a loan a Servicing Disclosure Statement. This requirement shall not apply when the application for credit is turned down within three business days after receipt of the application. A format for the Servicing Disclosure Statement appears as Appendix MS--1 to this part. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the specific language of the Servicing Disclosure Statement is not required to be used, but the Servicing Disclosure Statement must include the information set out in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, including the statement of the borrower's rights in connection with complaint resolution. The information set forth in Instructions to Preparer on the Servicing Disclosure Statement need not be included on the form given to applicants, and material in square brackets is optional or alternative language.
    (2)  The Applicant's Acknowledgement portion of the Servicing Disclosure Statement in the format stated is mandatory. Additional lines may be added to accommodate more than two applicants.
{{12-31-07 p.7022}}
    (3)  The Servicing Disclosure Statement must contain the following information, except as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section:
      (i)  Whether the servicing of the loan may be assigned, sold or transferred to any other person at any time while the loan is outstanding. If the lender, table funding mortgage broker, or dealer in a first lien dealer loan does not engage in the servicing of any mortgage servicing loans, the disclosure may consist of a statement to the effect that there is a current intention to assign, sell, or transfer servicing of the loan.
      (ii)  The percentages (rounded to the nearest quartile (25%)) of mortgage servicing loans originated by the lender in each calendar year for which servicing has been assigned, sold, or transferred for such calendar year. Compliance with this paragraph (b)(3)(ii) is not required if the lender, table funding mortgage broker, or dealer on a first lien dealer loan chooses option B in the model format in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, including in square brackets the language "[and have not serviced mortgage loans in the last three years.]". The percentages shall be provided as follows:
        (A)  This information shall be set out for the most recent three calendar years completed, with percentages as of the end of each year. This information shall be updated in the disclosure no later than March 31 of the next calendar year. Each percentage should be obtained by using as the numerator the number of mortgage servicing loans originated during the calendar year for which servicing is transferred within the calendar year and, as the denominator, the total number of mortgage servicing loans originated in the calendar year. If the volume of transfers is less than 12.5 percent, the word "nominal" or the actual percentage amount of servicing transfers may be used.
        (B)  This statistical information does not have to include the assignment, sale, or transfer of mortgage loan servicing by the lender to an affiliate or subsidiary of the lender. However, lenders may voluntarily include transfers to an affiliate or subsidiary. The lender should indicate whether the percentages provided include assignments, sales, or transfers to affiliates or subsidiaries.
        (C)  In the alternative, if applicable, the following statement may be substituted for the statistical information required to be provided in accordance with paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section: "We have previously assigned, sold, or transferred the servicing of federally related mortgage loans."
      (iii)  The best available estimate of the percentage (0 to 25 percent, 26 to 50 percent, 51 to 75 percent, or 76 to 100 percent) of all loans to be made during the 12-month period beginning on the date of origination for which the servicing may be assigned, sold, or transferred. Each percentage should be obtained by using as the numerator the estimated number of mortgage servicing loans that will be originated for which servicing may be transferred within the 12-month period and, as the denominator, the estimated total number of mortgage servicing loans that will be originated in the 12-month period.
        (A)  If the lender, mortgage broker, or dealer anticipates that no loan servicing will be sold during the calendar year, the word "none" may be substituted for "0 to 25 percent." If it is anticipated that all loan servicing will be sold during the calendar year, the word "all" may be substituted for "76 to 100 percent."
        (B)  This statistical information does not have to include the estimated assignment, sale, or transfer of mortgage loan servicing to an affiliate or subsidiary of that person. However, this information may be provided voluntarily. The Servicing Disclosure Statements should indicate whether the percentages provided include assignments, sales or transfers to affiliates or subsidiaries.
      (iv)  The information set out in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.
      (v)  A written acknowledgement that the applicant (and any co-applicant) has/have read and understood the disclosure, and understand that the disclosure is a required part of the mortgage application. This acknowledgement shall be evidenced by the signature of the applicant and any co-applicant.
    (4)  The following is a model format, which includes several options, for complying with the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The model format may be annotated with additional information that clarifies or enhances the model language. The
{{6-30-05 p.7023}}lender or table funding mortgage broker (or dealer) should use the language that best describes the particular circumstances.
      (i)  Model Format: The following is the best estimate of what will happen to the servicing of your mortgage loan:
        (A)  Option A. We may assign, sell, or transfer the servicing of your loan while the loan is outstanding. [We are able to service your loan[.][,] and we [will] [will not] [haven't decided whether to] service your loan.]; or
        (B)  Option B. We do not service mortgage loans[.][,] [and have not serviced mortgage loans in the past three years.] We presently intend to assign, sell, or transfer the servicing of your mortgage loan. You will be informed about your servicer.
        (C)  As appropriate, the following paragraph may be used:
  We assign, sell, or transfer the servicing of some of our loans while the loans are outstanding, depending on the type of loan and other factors. For the program for which you have applied, we expect to [assign, sell, or transfer all of the mortgage servicing] [retain all of the mortgage servicing] [assign, sell or transfer ____________________________________________ % of the mortgage servicing].
      (ii)  [Reserved]
  (c)  Servicing Disclosure Statement and Applicant Acknowledgement; delivery. The lender, table funding mortgage broker, or dealer that anticipates a first lien dealer loan shall deliver Servicing Disclosure Statements to each applicant for mortgage servicing loans. Each applicant or co-applicant must sign an Acknowledgement of receipt of the Servicing Disclosure Statement before settlement.
    (1)  In the case of a face-to-face interview with one or more applicants, the Servicing Disclosure Statement shall be delivered at the time of application. An applicant present at the interview may sign the Acknowledgment on his or her own behalf at that time. An applicant present at the interview also may accept delivery of the Servicing Disclosure Statement on behalf of the other applicants.
    (2)  If there is no face-to-face interview, the Servicing Disclosure Statement shall be delivered by placing it in the mail, with prepaid first-class postage, within 3 business days from receipt of the application. If co-applicants indicate the same address on their application, one copy delivered to that address is sufficient. If different addresses are shown by co-applicants on the application, a copy must be delivered to each of the co-applicants.
    (3)  The signed Applicant Acknowledgment(s) shall be retained for a period of 5 years after the date of settlement as part of the loan file for every settled loan. There is no requirement for retention of Applicant Acknowledgment(s) if the loan is not settled.
  (d)  Notices of Transfer; loan servicing.  (1)  Requirement for notice. (i)  Except as provided in this paragraph (d)(1)(i) or paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, each transferor servicer and transferee servicer of any mortgage servicing loan shall deliver to the borrower a written Notice of Transfer, containing the information described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, of any assignment, sale, or transfer of the servicing of the loan. The following transfers are not considered an assignment, sale, or transfer of mortgage loan servicing for purposes of this requirement if there is no change in the payee, address to which payment must be delivered, account number, or amount of payment due:
        (A)  Transfers between affiliates;
        (B)  Transfers resulting from mergers or acquisitions of servicers or subservicers; and
        (C)  Transfers between master servicers, where the subservicer remains the same.
      (ii)  The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is not required under paragraph (d) of this section to submit to the borrower a Notice of Transfer in cases where a mortgage insured under the National Housing Act is assigned to FHA.
    (2)  Time of notice. (i)  Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section:
        (A)  The transferor servicer shall deliver the Notice of Transfer to the borrower not less than 15 days before the effective date of the transfer of the servicing of the mortgage servicing loan;
{{6-30-05 p.7024}}
        (B)  The transferee servicer shall deliver the Notice of Transfer to the borrower not more than 15 days after the effective date of the transfer; and
        (C)  The transferor and transferee servicers may combine their notices into one notice, which shall be delivered to the borrower not less than 15 days before the effective date of the transfer of the servicing of the mortgage servicing loan.
      (ii)  The Notice of Transfer shall be delivered to the borrower by the transferor servicer or the transferee servicer not more than 30 days after the effective date of the transfer of the servicing of the mortgage servicing loan in any case in which the transfer of servicing is preceded by:
        (A)  Termination of the contract for servicing the loan for cause;
        (B)  Commencement of proceedings for bankruptcy of the servicer; or
        (C)  Commencement of proceedings by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) or the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) for conservatorship or receivership of the servicer or an entity that owns or controls the servicer.
      (iii)  Notices of Transfer delivered at settlement by the transferor servicer and transferee servicer, whether as separate notices or as a combined notice, will satisfy the timing requirements of paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
    (3)  Notices of Transfer; contents. The Notices of Transfer required under paragraph (d) of this section shall include the following information:
      (i)  The effective date of the transfer of servicing;
      (ii)  The name, consumer inquiry addresses (including, at the option of the servicer, a separate address where qualified written requests must be sent), and a toll-free or collect-call telephone number for an employee or department of the transferee servicer;
      (iii)  A toll-free or collect-call telephone number for an employee or department of the transferor servicer that can be contacted by the borrower for answers to servicing transfer inquiries;
      (iv)  The date on which the transferor servicer will cease to accept payments relating to the loan and the date on which the transferee servicer will begin to accept such payments. These dates shall either be the same or consecutive days;
      (v)  Information concerning any effect the transfer may have on the terms or the continued availability of mortgage life or disability insurance, or any other type of optional insurance, and any action the borrower must take to maintain coverage;
      (vi)  A statement that the transfer of servicing does not affect any other term or condition of the mortgage documents, other than terms directly related to the servicing of the loan; and
      (vii)  A statement of the borrower's rights in connection with complaint resolution, including the information set forth in paragraph (e) of this section.
Appendix MS--2 of this part illustrates a statement satisfactory to the Secretary.
    (4)  Notices of Transfer; sample notice. Sample language that may be used to comply with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section is set out in Appendix MS--2 of this part. Minor modifications to the sample language may be made to meet the particular circumstances of the servicer, but the substance of the sample language shall not be omitted or substantially altered.
    (5)  Consumer protection during transfer of servicing. During the 60-day period beginning on the effective date of transfer of the servicing of any mortgage servicing loan, if the transferor servicer (rather than the transferee servicer that should properly receive payment on the loan) receives payment on or before the applicable due date (including any grace period allowed under the loan documents), a late fee may not be imposed on the borrower with respect to that payment and the payment may not be treated as late for any other purposes.
  (e)  Duty of loan servicer to respond to borrower inquiries.
    (1)  Notice of receipt of inquiry. Within 20 business days of a servicer of a mortgage servicing loan receiving a qualified written request from the borrower for information relating to the servicing of the loan, the servicer shall provide to the borrower a written response acknowledging receipt of the qualified written response. This requirement shall not
{{6-30-05 p.7025}}apply if the action requested by the borrower is taken within that period and the borrower is notified of that action in accordance with the paragraph (f)(3) of this section. By notice either included in the Notice of Transfer or separately delivered by first-class mail, postage prepaid, a servicer may establish a separate and exclusive office and address for the receipt and handling of qualified written requests.
    (2)  Qualified written request; defined. (i)  For purposes of paragraph (e) of this section, a qualified written request means a written correspondence (other than notice on a payment coupon or other payment medium supplied by the servicer) that includes, or otherwise enables the servicer to identify, the name and account of the borrower, and includes a statement of the reasons that the borrower believes the account is in error, if applicable, or that provides sufficient detail to the servicer regarding information relating to the servicing of the loan sought by the borrower.
      (ii)  A written request does not constitute a qualified written request if it is delivered to a servicer more than 1 year after either the date of transfer of servicing or the date that the mortgage servicing loan amount was paid in full, whichever date is applicable.
    (3)  Action with respect to the inquiry. Not later than 60 business days after receiving a qualified written request from the borrower, and, if applicable, before taking any action with respect to the inquiry, the servicer shall:
      (i)  Make appropriate corrections in the account of the borrower, including the crediting of any late charges or penalties, and transmit to the borrower a written notification of the correction. This written notification shall include the name and telephone number of a representative of the servicer who can provide assistance to the borrower; or
      (ii)  After conducting an investigation, provide the borrower with a written explanation or clarification that includes:
        (A)  To the extent applicable, a statement of the servicer's reasons for concluding the account is correct and the name and telephone number of an employee, office, or department of the servicer that can provide assistance to the borrower; or
        (B)  Information requested by the borrower, or an explanation of why the information requested is unavailable or cannot be obtained by the servicer, and the name and telephone number of an employee, office, or department of the servicer that can provide assistance to the borrower.
    (4)  Protection of credit rating.  (i)  During the 60-business day period beginning on the date of the servicer receiving from a borrower a qualified written request relating to a dispute on the borrower's payments, a servicer may not provide adverse information regarding any payment that is the subject of the qualified written request to any consumer reporting agency (as that term is defined in section 603 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act,
15 U.S.C. 1681a).
      (ii)  In accordance with section 17 of RESPA (
12 U.S.C. 2615), the protection of credit rating provision of paragraph (e)(4)(i) of this section does not impede a lender or servicer from pursuing any of its remedies, including initiating foreclosure, allowed by the underlying mortgage loan instruments.
  (f)  Damages and costs.  (1)  Whoever fails to comply with any provision of this section shall be liable to the borrower for each failure in the following amounts:
      (i)  Individuals. In the case of any action by an individual, an amount equal to the sum of any actual damages sustained by the individual as the result of the failure and, when there is a pattern or practice of noncompliance with the requirements of this section, any additional damages in an amount not to exceed $1,000.
      (ii)  Class Actions. In the case of a class action, an amount equal to the sum of any actual damages to each borrower in the class that result from the failure and, when there is a pattern or practice of noncompliance with the requirements of this section, any additional damages in an amount not greater than $1,000 for each class member. However, the total amount of any additional damages in a class action may not exceed the lesser of  500,000 or 1 percent of the net worth of the servicer.
{{6-30-05 p.7026}}
      (iii)  Costs. In addition, in the case of any successful action under paragraph (f) of this section, the costs of the action and any reasonable attorneys' fees incurred in connection with the action.
    (2)  Nonliability. A transferor or transferee servicer shall not be liable for any failure to comply with the requirements of this section, if within 60 days after discovering an error (whether pursuant to a final written examination report or the servicer's own procedures) and before commencement of an action under this section and the receipt of written notice of the error from the borrower, the servicer notifies the person concerned of the error and makes whatever adjustments are necessary in the appropriate account to ensure that the person will not be required to pay an amount in excess of any amount that the person otherwise would have paid.
  (g)  Timely payments by servicer. If the terms of any mortgage servicing loan require the borrower to make payments to the servicer of the loan for deposit into an escrow account for the purpose of assuring payment of taxes, insurance premiums, and other charges with respect to the mortgaged property, the servicer shall make payments from the escrow account in a timely manner for the taxes, insurance premiums, and other charges as the payments become due, as governed by the requirements in
 3500.17(k).
  (h)  Preemption of State laws. A lender who makes a mortgage servicing loan or a servicer shall be considered to have complied with the provisions of any State law or regulation requiring notice to a borrower at the time of application for a loan or transfer of servicing of a loan if the lender or servicer complies with the requirements of this section. Any State law requiring notice to the borrower at the time of application or at the time of transfer of servicing of the loan is preempted, and there shall be no additional borrower disclosure requirements. Provisions of State law, such as those requiring additional notices to insurance companies or taxing authorities, are not preempted by section 6 of RESPA or this section, and this additional information may be added to a notice prepared under this section, if the procedure is allowable under State law.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2502-0458)

[Codified to 24 C.F.R.  3500.21]

[Section 3500.21 added at 59 Fed. Reg. 65448, December 19, 1994, effective June 19, 1995; amended at 60 Fed. Reg. 2642, January 10, 1995, effective June 19, 1995; 60 Fed. Reg. 14636, March 20, 1995, effective June 19, 1995; 61 Fed. Reg. 13248, May 26, 1996, effective April 25, 1996]

For more information please fill out the form below or call us at 800-946-8168. We'll be in touch within 1 business hour.

We will not share your information with anyone, ever.

Company Name:

Contact Name:

Phone#:

Email:


Area of Interest:

 

 


Compliance Self Audit
Compliance Research
Title Insurance & Services
Valuation Services
Property Reports
Flood Zone Determinations
Closing Services

 

Comment:

 

 



 

 

 

 



Privacy Statement


 

The first time you called I told you I thought flood companies are lazy and why should I switch from one lazy company to another. You told me you were different but I’d heard it all before. After calling me for a year I decided to give you a chance and we tested your system for a week.

At first we sent the easy ones, then on the last day of our test, one of my staff sent you the most difficult one possible, it was very rural and we only gave you a partial legal description.  We also told you we needed it back in less than thirty minutes. When you called us 17 minutes later and told us it was complete we were very impressed. In the past every other flood company would have called for more information. Since that day you’ve provided us with excellent service and thank you for being so persistent.

 Linda Marincel
Mortgage Department Manager
Royal CU

 

Thanks for the superior service! 

Cyndi Hardy
Sales Manager/Home Mortgage Consultant
Wells Fargo Home Mortgage
- Builder Division

 

This is in acknowledgement of the exemplary service that Processing Solutions has provided Primacy Relocation over the past year. When we first signed up with you, you promised us exceptional service and you have consistently delivered above and beyond our expectations. We needed a customized solution that involves a lot of manual entry on your part and we really appreciate the “above and beyond” service that your company provides. Whenever I call and ask for help you respond immediately. We couldn’t be more pleased. It is always a pleasure to speak with you. Usually when I have to call a vendor to either ask for help or clarification it is in many ways dreadful. This is NEVER the case with you. I consider my decision to move our flood cert requests to Processing Solutions one of the best decisions we have ever made. Again, thank you for the exceptional service.

Gayle Shackelford
Risk Control Manager
Primacy Relocation

 

On behalf of the real estate staff I wanted to thank you for taking such good care of us. We really appreciate your quick responses to all our needs. Just the other day one of our members disputed a flood zone designation, and with her additional documentation you resolved the situation for us almost instantly. We appreciate your friendly and fast service. 

Hemlata Patel
AVP, Lending
Pacific Service CU

 

Thank you for the excellent service. We really enjoy working with you and your company. When you first called on me I was skeptical but you kept persisting. After a year and a half I realized that you wouldn’t be so persistent unless your service really was that much better. We decided to test your service and your systems and found your claims to be true. What we are most impressed with however, is your complete willingness to be of service which is demonstrated by regular calls to us to ensure that our needs are being met and appreciating the opportunity to be of service to MSGCU.

Susan Hamlett
Consumer Loan Manager
Michigan Schools and Government Credit Union

 

Thank you for taking such good care of us here at Greater Nevada Mortgage Services.  Ingrid Maddox and I really appreciate how quickly you respond to us with your constant follow up and attention. We know that if there is ever a problem you take care of us right away, and this customer service helps us close our loans faster. Thank you, and keep up the good work!

Ingrid Maddox
VP of Operations
Greater Nevada CU

 

I would like to thank you and Processing Solutions for the excellent service you provide us. The fast and efficient delivery of your products and services make me feel like I am the most important customer you have. I will continue to recommend your firm to anyone in need of your services. Thank you so much and keep up the good work!

Brian Sheehan
Loan Processor
Benchmark Mortgage

 

We are very pleased with your company. We have never had any problems with any determinations. You are always prompt in turn around time even on the difficult ones. Thanks.

Barb Cernohous
Assistant Vice President
River Falls State Bank

 

I want you to know that I am extremely happy with the service and I really appreciate your checking in with me like you do.  I had an issue where flood insurance was required but I was trying to get help with determining if I could get it reviewed again and I was very satisfied with the help and response I received.

Kelli Ingram
Vice President - Credit Administraton
Bank of Atlanta

 

Thanks for the quick help!  It was pretty impressive! 

 Ed Reed
 Assistant Vice President
American Bank of Missouri

 

Thank you for excellent service. I appreciate all you have done to make my job more streamlined.

 Jackie Flores
 Loan Officer
Elite Loan Pros

 

We’re a small credit union and don’t send your company a lot of business, but can tell that you care about helping us. You promised good service when we signed up with your company and you’ve gone beyond our expectations. Thanks for all your continuing help.

Karen Meeks
Mortgage Loan Officer

Golden Bay Federal Credit Union

 

I just wanted to say thank you for the service level you have been providing to us. Yesterday I needed you to follow up on a manual flood zone determination. I emailed you and within, literally, minutes you returned my call and shortly thereafter your team had the certification emailed to me. This is the response to most anything we have had a need to call you about.

 Linda Bradfield
 Loan Processor
Tri- Counties Bank

 

I am so impressed with your response! 

Susan M. Santerelli
Attorney at Law
Severson & Werson

 

I wanted to take this time to send a note of thanks for all of the wonderful work you do and the service you provide us. We are very satisfied and quiet glad that we are now sending all of our business your way. The response time is wonderful and we are VERY happy with the cost. You, in particular, have always gone just one step beyond the need and have helped me out so many times without making me feel like a bother. Your complete willingness to help and your, always friendly, attitude makes such a difference; so much so that I would, without reservation, recommend you to anyone needing this service!

Jane Slaughter
Loan Processor
Tri-Counties Bank

 

I just wanted to write a quick note and thank you for the services you have been providing our credit union.  We have been so very impressed with the level of service we receive from you and your company.  I have heard many promises made in my 20+ years of lending experience, however, the service we have received from Processing Solutions has exceeded our expectation levels and you truly deliver what you promise.

John Garner
Vice President of Lending
3 Rivers FCU

Back to Top>>

 
The Compliance Self Audit Compliance Research Regulatory Updates Vendor Management Compliance Training